Thursday, February 4, 2016

Wednesday, February 3, 2016

Christie’s auction house is selling over 100 rare photos, prints and drawings by Andy Warhol to coincide with LGBT Pride month.

The unique collection, sourced directly from the collection of the Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts, is titled “Andy’s Randy Summer” and includes some of Warhol’s lesser-known and more gay-oriented material.

Some pieces in the collection have never been shown in public before now, including photos of men undressing, nude portraits, and candid shots that showcase Warhol’s “unique gaze on the LGBTQ community.”

Tuesday, February 2, 2016

Monday, February 1, 2016

Jakub Godziszewski

Sculpture During the Classic Period


 
For all the videos in order with a textbook and study guides please visit:
http://art-and-art-history-academy.usefedora.com/

Sculpture During the Classic Period
  



Doryphoros (Spear Bearer)
(also called "the Canon")
by Polykleitos c450-440 BC
Roman copy after a bronze original
marble height 6'6"
tree stump and leg brace are later
Roman additions
Classic, Greek
Form:  This frontally oriented sculpture of a young male figure is well over life sized, is idealized, and naturalistic.  Some of the features of the face, the musculature of the abdomen and above the genitals have been distorted to fit in with an ideal of physical beauty.  The hair, nose of the figure and eyebrows have a rather geometrically stylized aspect to them as does the overall anatomy of the figure.  There is still a hint of the archaic smile.The figure stands in a life like contrapposto pose (contra- against posto- posture) in which the body takes on an over all "s" curve.  There is a shift of weight at the hips and a majority of the figure's weight is on one leg.  The torso is turned in a slight angle opposite to the angle of the hips. The pose looks almost as if the figure is in movement.
This is a marble sculpture made by Romans copied from a bronze original that used the hollow casting or the cire perdue or lost wax process.   The process is referred to as lost wax not because we have lost the process, but because the figure is originally sculpted from wax which is lost in the process.  The original is encased in clay.  Two drainage holes are placed in the clay and when the clay is heated, the wax runs out of the hole leaving a cavity.  Bronze is then poured into the cavity and when the bronze cools the clay mold is broken open revealing the bronze sculpture.  Since the bronze is a fairly soft metal, details can be etched and molded while the bronze is cool.
(go here for diagrams)

Iconography: This sculpture depicts a perfect and beautiful young man the essence of kalos. 
In Greek epic poetry the hero is always described as handsome or beautiful and their physical appearance is a reflection of the character's virtue.  The idealism or beauty of the Greek figure is linked to the concept that you can judge a book by its cover.  The Greek term for beauty is kalos (calos).  The term kalos can also be interchanged with and is synonymous with goodness.  Therefore, to call someone or something beautiful also means that that thing is also "good."
The original sculpture was actually designed to be an icon that represented physical perfection of the human form and therefore a god-like kalos.  TheDoryphoros by Polykleitos was considered so proportionately perfect that it was called the "canon"  (a set of rules or criterion or standard of judgment).
The contrapposto pose serves the same purpose as the archaic smile.  Both were designed to give the work a more lifelike illusion.  In the case of the archaic smile, it almost as if there is the beginnings of movement in the face and the same is true of the contrapposto that seems as if the body is about to move.
Context: Schema and correction play heavily into this work.  There are elements derived from the original kouros figures, such as the step forward, the idealized form and the archaic smile, but, Polykleitos builds on the naturalism to make the sculpture more life-like.
Since this is a Roman marble copy after bronze original, this would make this yet another corrected view.  This copy of the work is the "correction" on the Greeks original "schema" and so its accuracy is in question.  Historians and Romans have often called this work the Canon.  This work was designed by Polykleitos to be his canon or his  treatise   (a complete guide of sorts) to making a perfect sculpture.  Unfortunately, neither his sculpture or his written texts survived but we do have Roman descriptions of the text and Roman copies of the sculpture and so the Romans referred to it as the "Canon."  The naming of this sculpture is complicated for this and other reasons.
It is thought that the original bronze carried a long spear and that is where he gets his name.  Doryphoros in Greek translates as "spear bearer."  This marble sculpture of the Doryphoros is a Roman copy of the first original bronze by Polykleitos.  We are lucky enough to have a sculpture that was made at the same time as the original Doryphoros referred to as the Riace Bronze or Young Warrior from Riace (c 460-450 BCE) that approximates what the original Doryphoros must have looked like.

Kouros from Attica (the region surrounding Athens)
c600 BCE 6' 4" marble
polychrome, encaustic
Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY
Archaic

Doryphoros (Spear Bearer)
(also called "the Canon")
by Polykleitos c450-440 BC
Roman copy after a bronze original
marble height 6'6"
tree stump and leg brace are later
Roman additions
Classic, Greek
Another look at schema and correction:Summary of Gombrich
Renown art historian Ernst Gombrich developed a theory to explain these adaptations and changes and refered to it as schema and correction.  If we were to look at the Archaic period's art and architecture as the plan or schema, we can see how the later Classic period might have taken the archaic art as its schema and updated it in order to make the designs more pleasing according to the  later tastes.  These changes are referred to as the correction.
To understand his theory called "schema and naturalization," or "schema and correction." To understand it you basically just need to know the definitions of three words. 
  • Schema is the cultural code through which individuals raised in a culture perceive the world. For example, we recognize stick figures to be humans.
  • Correction is where you take that schema and you compare it to what your senses tell you about the world and then you make it more accurate.
  • Mimesis is the process of correcting your schema.
Gombrich's idea can be expanded to looking how later groups can take the earlier work of art and mimic it (mimesis).  This is a kind of Darwinian theory kind of like Darwin's theory of the "survival of the fitest."Read some more stuff by Gombrich if it interests you!



THE RIACE BRONZEc460-450 BCE Classical Greek bronze w/ bone, glass paste, silver & copper inlaid,h. 200cm Reggio Calabria: Museo Nazionale
This sculpture was made in Greece, possibly by the Greek Sculptor Phidias.


Diana Holcombe
Art History 103A
April 30, 2001
Professor Mencher
A Great Reason to Scuba Dive 
Scuba diving in exotic places can be great exercise, as well as a fun thing to do with your friends.  But there might be another surprising advantage to this rather extreme hobby.  You could actually discover buried treasure!  The Young Warrior from Riace (c 460-450 BCE) was discovered in exactly that way.  A tourist was scuba diving off the southern coast of Italy and found what appeared to be a human arm sticking out of the ocean floor. After more careful investigation he discovered it was a metal human arm, and after careful excavation it was discovered that the statue was almost six feet tall, and made out of very heavy bronze.  After the statue was retrieved and revived, theories flew around about how, and where the Riace Warrior came from.  By studying the form, and iconography of the sculpture, and then comparing these traits to the context in which the sculpture was made, I will attempt to analyze theYoung Warrior from Riace as in depth as possible.
The sculpture was made using the cire perdue (lost wax) process.  This process was a favorite for Greek sculptors because it enabled them to make sculptures that were in much more life like poses.  (Stokstad 181)  The first step of this rather complex procedure is to make the sculpture out of wax, and then cover the wax with clay.  Then the clay is fired which melts the wax so that the clay embodies a hollow form.  Molten bronze is then poured into the hollow space.  Once the bronze is cooled, the clay shell is removed, and you have your finished, beautiful, bronze sculpture!  Sound easy?  I'm sure it's not.  Which makes some of the other details of the statue even more incredible.  The eyeballs are made of carved bone, and colored glass.  And each eyelash and eyebrow are of separately cast bronze. The nipples, and lips, are a pinkish copper, and the teeth are made from silver.  The entire statue is of a Greek Warrior that has a young body, but an old face.  He is about six feet tall with a contrapposto stance, and an almost naturalistic, but still very idealized body form.    His body is very smooth, and athletic looking, but his face has deep lines, and bags under the eyes.  The hair, and beard are both done very purposefully with separate strands all overlapping each other.  He would be holding a sword, and a shield if he were in his completely original form.
The iconography of this statue is fairly clear.  The purpose of this statue was probably to instill a sense of pride about the Greek army, and to illustrate the strength and wisdom that Greek men were expected to have. The body form is exaggerated because of the height and the muscle structure in the stomach, but is still realistic enough to make men and women feel that Greek men could, should and do look this way.  The beard is symbolic of wisdom, but the long hair is a sign of youthfulness.   A major contradiction, but also an image that is being radiated to men.  Telling them it is possible to achieve great intellectual achievements while you are still young?  If only you were Greek!  The athletic body and contrapposto stance is symbolic of an athlete or warrior.  And the smoothness of the body makes it fairly obvious this was a young man.
This statue is from the Classical period of Greek art (480-350 BCE). This was a time of expansion to farther parts of Europe.  Including colonies in Italy, and Sicily.  It is accepted that the statue was being exported, or imported to a Greek colony located on the tip of Italy. (Stokstad 182)  How the statue wound up in the ocean is all speculation. Perhaps the ship was in distress and the statue was thrown over board intentionally, or it could have been lost in rough seas.  Either way, that part remains a mystery. According to the Encyclopedia Britannica, this period of Greek history is one of expansion, but mainly a peaceful time, where the Greeks embraced their heritage and developed miraculous strides in their architectural, and artistic methods.  Trade flourished, and so did the cultural trading of ideas.  Pericles came to power and brought with him refreshing ideas to change the face of the Greek temple, and the Greek government.  The Parthenon was erected, as well as numerous other temples, and altars.  During this mostly governmental and architectural renaissance, sculpture was being seen as an even bigger way to express wealth, and power.  Much like our models in magazine photographs, sculptures capture the essence of a time period, or of a person.  They can be used as propaganda, or as a way to record history. The Young Warrior from Riace does both.  He is a good looking warrior, selling his image to the people of Greece.  And yet he represents a time period, so he captures the events taking place during the Classical period of Greek life.
Many things have been found hidden beneath the vast waters of the ocean. But few have matched up to this statue.  We have looked at the form, and iconography of the statue.  We also looked at some of the things surrounding its creation.  It's not hard to understand why the Greek government and its people loved this statue, and the things it stood for.  It was a representation of the country's power, and pride.  It showed the exquisite craftsmanship that the Greeks were capable of.  And last, but not least: for the last thirty years it has inspired people all over the world to go scuba diving. 


Kritian Boy by Kritios,
"Ephebe of Kritios" c480BCE
marble, height 46"
Greek, Classic,
Form:  This sculpture shares much in common with the Doryphoros:  it is of a young male figure, it  is idealized,  naturalistic and shares in the same stylizations.  Some of the features of the face, the musculature of the abdomen and above the genitals have been distorted to fit in with an ideal of physical beauty.  The hair, nose of the figure and eyebrows have a rather geometrically stylized aspect to them as does the overall anatomy of the figure.  There is still a hint of the archaic smile.The figure stands in a life like contrapposto pose (contra- against posto- posture) in which the body takes on an over all "s" curve.  There is a shift of weight at the hips and a majority of the figure's weight is on one leg.  The torso is turned in a slight angle opposite to the angle of the hips. The pose looks almost as if the figure is in movement.
Iconography:  This sculpture, like the earlier Kouros figures, was actually designed to be an icon that represented physical perfection of the human form and therefore a god-like kalos.  This sculpture might even have been the schema for the Doryphoros by Polykleitos.
Context: This sculpture was found in the rubble underneath the Acropolis and was preserved in the same way as the Moscophoros.  Since the only sculptures that survived by Kritios were Roman marble copies, this sculpture was considered quite a find and was attributed to the sculptor based on its formal and stylistic similarities to Roman copies. 



Blonde Boy's Head 480B.C.- 
This sculpture is a good formal example of the idealized distortions made by Greek sculptors of the human head and face.  Side view facial features are idealized.  Hair is perfect. No indention from nose to forehead, known as a "Greek Nose." The ear is too high and far back. This sculpture is made based on their conception of physical beauty. They simply decided to make nature over according to their tastes.


Diskobolos (Discus-thrower)
by Myron  c450BCE
5'1"
Roman marble copy after a
Greek bronze original
Greek Classic

Form:  This sculpture shares much in common with the Doryphoros and Ephebe of Kritios:  but aside from the idealized stylizations of these sculptures it appears to be in movement.  In actuality the sculptor Myron has chosen to freeze an actual moment in the process of an athlete throwing a discus.  Nevertheless, the sculpture, like all Greek sculptures, whether in the round or relief style, is frontally oriented.  There is only one way the sculptor meant for the viewer to see the image.Iconography:  This is a symbol of Greek male athleticism and therefore the ideal citizen and soldier.  The athletic activity he is participating in is probably also a reference to heroism during the Olympics.
Context: This sculpture is one of the first examples of a figure caught in a convincing frozen moment.  The original sculpture would have been cast from bronze and this possibly would have eliminated the need for the tree stump and for one of the arms to be engaged or connected with the leg.  This sculpture also demonstrates the ability of the Greeks to actually observe nature and mimic the movement of the human body convincingly.

  
  


Hermes (Mercury) and the
Infant Dionysus.
by Praxiteles or his followers
c340-320 BCE
marble with remnants of
red paint on the lips and hair
height 7'
Classic or Hellenistic
Hellenistic Art
800-700 B.C.= Oriental Influence
700-500 B.C.= Archaic Period
480-350 B.C. = Classic Age
350-100 B.C.= Hellenism (Hellenistic Art)Form: This statue's anatomy is considerably more realistic than earlier sculptures.  The musculature is softer, and more sensuous and there is even a bit of body fat.  Although the statue is in contrapposto position to indicate slight movement the "S" curve of the body is heightened and the movement is more exaggerated by the arm that is held aloft.  The head of the adult figure is turned towards the infant that is reaching towards the extended arm.  This sculpture although still frontally oriented, is even more in the round than others.  The viewer can begin to move to the far left and right to see a more interesting and complete view of the figure.Iconography:  This sculpture probably represents Hermes and Dionysus.  Hermes is the wing footed messenger god who served as a temporary "nurse maid" for Dionysus in order to protect the young god from Hera.  Hermes is holding out a bunch of grapes, and young Dionysos's reaching for them is prophetic symbol of  Dionysos's role as the god of wine.  The scene is a bit of a genre scene and probably symbolizes the more humanistic or playful attributes of the gods.
Context:  Stokstad asserts that this is probably a copy because of the anachronistic elements of the footwear and the fact that Romans often used braces and other elements to further support their sculptures.  I believe that this sculpture is really Hellenistic because it exhibits the more dramatic and lifelike qualities of that period. This sculpture represents a break with the earlier periods in the fact that the anatomy is a bit more sensuous and realistic and that the scene is more of a dramatic and interactive moment.
Stokstad (page 210) discusses the idea that Greek art around 320 BCE goes through a marked shift and begins to change into a style that stresses life-like and less general themes.  Hellenistic style art is very similar to the changes in film between the 1950 and the 1980's in the United States.  If one was to think of a gangster film from the 1950's the themes, dialogue, sexual content, and violence were fairly restrained and the moral of the film would usually be that good conquers over evil or something just as high minded.  Today, we have films that are much more violent, more dramatic and the higher moral them is harder to understand.  The same dramatic shift happens in Greek art between the classic age and the later Hellenistic phases.  The sculpture by Praxiteles is an excellent example of this shift.  It is a fine example of a transitional work of art between the two periods.




Nike of Samothrace 190 B.C.E.
by Pythokritos of Rhodes?
Marble, height 8'
Louvre, Paris
Hellenistic
Form:  This sculpture is a massive sculpture of a composite creature known as a Nike.  The convincing anatomy is heightened by the use of wind whipped wet drapery of her chiton and the forward moving posture of the figure.  Originally this sculpture would have had extended arms and probably a face with a fierce facial expression.She is placed on the prow of a stone boat.  Gardner describes that the setting of the sculpture would have been augmented with the sculpture's placement in the upper basin of a two tiered fountain that would have suggested to all the senses that the ship was moving and splashing through the water.
Iconography:  Homer and other poets often described victory as being "winged."  Images of flight and floating above the water are almost part of every culture's collective unconscious.  The iconography of the the figure is clearly defined and augmented by her location on the prow of a stone boat as winged victory leading the navy into victorious battle.  The massive size, movement, and youthful body of the figure are symbols of power as well.
Context:  Stokstad describes the conditions and condition the sculpture was found in her book.




Laocoon and his sons, c1C BCE by
Hagesandros, Polydoros, and Athenadoros
of Rhodes, marble 8' tall
Vatican Museum, Rome
Hellenistic
Form: The anatomy of each of the three figures are illustrations of ideal anatomy for their ages.  The counterpoise and twisting of the figures, while not contrapposto (which is a standing pose) is a pose that inspired Michelangelo.  Michelangelo referred to such twisting and turning as serpentata (serpentine).  The individuals' faces are highly dramatic and expressive and the figures themselves interact with each other and with the serpent that attacks them.  Overall, this is one of the best examples of how Hellenistic art pushed the envelope from the Classic period.Iconography:  This sculpture represents an episode out of the Roman poet Vergil's Aeneid. This particular scene recounts an event about the Fall of Troy. Laocoon, a celibate priest in the service of Poseidon, was punished by Poseidon, for acts of hubris against the god. (Hint: Notice he has children)  Another interpretation of this tale and his subsequent punishment was that he warned the Trojans "Beware of Greeks bearing gifts" when they opened the gates and were presented with the famous Trojan horse in which Odysseus and his men hid.  Either interpretation of this yields that this sculpture is a warning against interacting with or offending the gods.
Context:  The origins or provenance of this work is still in question.  One of the questions that arises in the study of this sculpture is, is it a Roman copy or a work of art made by late Greek Hellenistic sculptors Hagesandros, Polydoros, and Athenadoros?  Who was the work made for?  Either way, the work was found in the remains of the emperor Titus in Rome in 1506.  Recently evidence seems to suggest that this work is the original and not a copy.  According to Gardner, there are accounts by a historian from Titus' time named Pliny of the sculpture and several fragments illustrating similar stories from the Odyssey were found 6o miles from Rome in the seaside villa of first century emperor Tiberius.  One of the fragments was signed by Hagesandros, Polydoros, and Athenadoros.
The fact that this work was almost certainly made for a Roman audience by Greek artists inspires another interesting observation.  Greek art under Roman patronage might have been freed to become even more dramatic and violent.  Parallels of this exist in a possible comparison between the accounts of the fall of Troy as portrayed in the literature of the Greek Odyssey, and Roman Aeneid.  The Greek account barely mentions Laocoon while the Roman account is a bit more detailed.  (Hint: This would make an awesome paper topic)

  

canon
Etymology: Middle English, from Old English, from Late Latin, from Latin, ruler, rule, model, standard, from Greek kanOn
Date: before 12th century
4 a : an accepted principle or rule b: a criterion or standard of judgment c : a body of principles, rules, standards, or norms
1 a : a regulation or dogma decreed by a church council b: a provision of canon law
2 [Middle English, prob. from Old French, from Late Latin, from Latin, model] : the most solemn and unvarying part of the Mass including the consecration of the bread and wine
3 [Middle English, from Late Latin, from Latin, standard] a: an authoritative list of books accepted as Holy Scripture b: the authentic works of a writer c: a sanctioned or accepted group or body of related works canon
 of great literature>
5 [Late Greek kanOn, from Greek, model] : a contrapuntal musical composition in two or more voice parts in which the melody is imitated exactly and completely by the successive voices though not always at the same pitch
synonym see LAWkalos In Greek epic poetry the hero is always described as handsome or beautiful and their physical appearance is a reflection of the character's virtue.  The idealism or beauty of the Greek figure is linked to the concept that you can judge a book by its cover.  The Greek term for beauty is kalos (calos).  The term kalos can also be interchanged with and is synonymous with goodness.  Therefore, to call someone or something beautiful also means that that thing is also "good."
trea·tise
Pronunciation: 'trE-t&s also -t&z
Function: noun
Etymology: Middle English tretis, from Anglo-French tretiz, from Old
French traitier to treat
Date: 14th century
1 : a systematic exposition or argument in writing including a methodical
discussion of the facts and principles involved and conclusions reached
treatise
 on higher education>
obsolete : ACCOUNT, TALE