Monday, February 29, 2016

Baroque Art

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Baroque Art 1600-c1730


Annibale Carracci The Farnese ceiling1597-1601 
depicting the Loves of the Gods, ceiling frescoes in the Gallery, 
Palazzo Farnese, Rome.
Venus and Anchises  (detail)

 
Annibale Carracci
Farnese GalleryForm: The gallery of the palace is sixty-six feet long and twenty-one feet wide.  The vaulted ceilings reach thirty-two feet in height.  Its dual function was to hold receptions and display statues which were part of the Farnese collection. (now held in Naples)
Iconography:  Overtly the ceiling deals with humanistic and neoclassical scenes.  Since the Cardinal Farnese commissioned the ceiling to celebrate the wedding of his brother, the pagan theme, love of the gods at first seems appropriate, however, the scenes are often profane, hedonistic, and erotic and therefore almost a rather odd choice of subject material for a cardinal.  All scenes are taken from classical mythology and strongly illustrate the power of love.  None of the scenes are linked to form a continuous narrative though they all echo and respond to each other in their form and idea. 
Context:  Annibale, his brother Agostino, and their cousin Lodovico were Bolognese artists who designated their studio in a teaching academy.  Their aim was to combine the best elements of all the previous masters and start a classical revival.  Annibale was the major artist among the three--his fame resting on the decorations of the gallery of the Palazzo Farnese in Rome. 
In a way, the Carracci family was making the equivalent of today's interior design companies or even a film production company.  One of the things they were attempting to do was to find and create a bigger market for their work and so, you will see that over all the Carracci worked with a variety of styles, palettes and themes.
Venus and Anchises
Form:  The color is strong and clear. Surrounding the couple are illusionistic stone statues resembling classical Atlas figures.  These trompe l’oeil figures and busts surrounding the painting are known as “terms.”   They are both classical architectural ornaments. 
Iconography: Whenever you see someone's leg thrown over another's, there is an implication of sexuality.  In his book, The Sexuality of Christ, Leo Steinberg refers to this as the “slung leg theory.”  The union of Venus and Anchises resulted in the birth of Aeneas, the founder of Rome.  This is indicated on the footstool containing a quotation from Virgil’s Aeneid.
Part of the iconography of these images is a reference to both the tradition of studying classic or "antique" works as a guide to making better art and the ceiling overall is a "tongue in cheek" reference to Michelangelo's Sistine Chapel.  However, in this case, the subject matter of the ceiling and scenes are not biblical and since they are so "sexy" in nature, they are also less than classic or platonic.
Context:  Virgil modeled his book, the Aeneid on Homer’s Odyssey and Iliad.  The Aenied’s protagonist is Aeneas.  Like Homer’s Achilles, Aeneas was born of a mortal man (Anchises) and goddess (Venus).  Their union is featured in this fresco.  It is believed that Aeneas was the founder of Rome and that Julius Caesar and Augustus are his descendants. 
written by Annette Abbott edited by Kenney Mencher 

  


Annibale Carracci, Self  Portrait 1597
Form:  This self portrait incorporates a low key or earth toned palette combined with a very close point of view.  Annibale demonstrates a good mastery of the human face as well as the depiction of light and shadow across it which is called chiaroscuro(the play of light and shadow or shading) to create realism in this work.  According to the Brittanica, chiaroscuro (from Italian chiaro, "light"; scuro, "dark"), which is technique employed in the visual arts to represent light and shadow as they define three-dimensional objects.Carracci also uses an intense spotlight on his face while the rest of the picture plane is murky surrounding him.  This is calledtenebrism and it is a way of creating a focus on a particular element in a work and also gives the work a sense of heightened drama.
The painting also feels like an immediate kind of "snapshot" of Carracci.  Carracci seems to be looking directly at you but what he is really doing is looking directly into a mirror and painting directly from observation.  Since this is the case, Carracci was probably  painting without using any previous studies or drawings.  This is called ala prima-(in the first) which means painting directly from observation onto canvas.
Iconography and Context:  One of the skills that most painters needed to develop during the Renaissance period was the ability to paint portraits and accurate likenesses.  Often this skill was developed by painting with a the only model that one might have available which is one's self.  Obviously, since there are others in this image, Carracci could have had one of his assistants model for him so why then did he paint a self portrait?
The answer probably lies in the basic premise of the Renaissance man.  The humanistic and platonic idea of perfectibility gave rise to self reflection and observation.  A portrait then is not just about the immediate appearance but also it is a symbol of the person.  In this image we see that Carracci is studying himself and also demonstrating his ability to create a strong psychological likeness as well a physical likeness.




Carracci Annibale Flight to Egypt 1604 Oil on canvas Galleria Doria Pamphili, Rome
Robert Campin (the Master of Flemalle) Merode Altarpiece c. 1425
The Merode Altarpiece shares many of the same qualities with Carracci's Flight to Egypt
How might Campin's work be a schema for it?
Form:  In contrast to the vivid colours of the frescoes of the Farnese Gallery, Carracci uses a low-key palette in his Flight into Egypt.  The earth tones of the landscape are employed to guide the viewer to gaze at the main characters at the front of the picture plane.  Carracci thought that Nature was an important element in painting and this is reflected most through his landscapes.  Many of the landscape scenes which he painted in Rome consisted of this classical landscape formula:  a vista of recessing diagonal lines containing castles, trees, winding rivers and hilltop towns. Iconography:  This is a genre scene and a pastoral or arcadian setting of sorts. Carracci incorporates elements of the classic arcadian scene with the genre elements that are meant to get the viewer to feel as if they might be able to identify with the principle characters in the scene.  We only know that this is not a simple landscape scene after noticing the halos on the figures and reading the title.
After this then, we are expected to look for some sort of submerged symbolism.  The shepherd with his sheep in the middle of the picture plane represents Jesus, the Shepherd of humankind.    The gray clouds in the sky may indicate the “storm” taking place at that time. The peaceful boat, which delivered them to safety to the other side of the river, is symbolic of life.  White birds (doves?) are also indicative of either the Holy Spirit or of peace.
Context:  This painting refers to the biblical story from Matthew 2: 1-21.  After hearing that another “king” had been born in Bethlehem, Herod orders all male children under the age of two to be killed in order to ensure his continual reign.  An angel appears to Joseph in a dream and instructs him to leave Bethlehem immediately with Mary and Jesus and go to Egypt where they all will be safe. 
written by Annette Abbott





ar.ca.di.an adj, often cap (1589) 1: idyllically pastoral; esp: idyllically innocent, simple, or untroubled 2 a: of or relating to Arcadia or the Arcadians b: of or relating to Arcadian Ar.ca.di.an n (1590) 1 often not cap: a person who lives a simple quiet life 2: a native or inhabitant of Arcadia 3: the dialect of ancient Greek used in ArcadiaAccording to the Brittanica,
Modern Greek ARKADHÍA, mountainous region of the central Peloponnesus of ancient Greece. The pastoral character of Arcadian life together with its isolation partially explains why it was represented as a paradise in Greek and Roman bucolic poetry and in the literature of the Renaissance. The region is not exactly coextensive with the present-day nomós (department) of Arkadhía, which extends on the east to the Gulf of Argolis. The capital of the nomos is Trípolis.


chiaroscuro
chiar.oscu.ro n, pl -ros [It, fr. chiaro clear, light + oscuro obscure, dark] (1686) 1: pictorial representation in terms of light and shade without regard to color 2 a: the arrangement or treatment of light and dark parts in a pictorial work of art b: the interplay or contrast of dissimilar qualities (as of mood or character) 3: a 16th century woodcut technique involving the use of several blocks to print different tones of the same color; also: a print made by this technique 4: the interplay of light and shadow on or as if on a surface 5: the quality of being veiled or partly in shadowAccording to the Brittanica, 

Chiaroscuro (from Italian chiaro, "light"; scuro, "dark"),
technique employed in the visual arts to represent light and shadow as they define three-dimensional objects.Some evidence exists that ancient Greek and Roman artists used chiaroscuro effects, but in European painting the technique was first brought to its full potential by Leonardo da Vinci in the late 15th century in such paintings as his "Adoration of the Magi" (1481; Uffizi, Florence). Thereafter, chiaroscuro became a primary technique for many painters, and by the late 17th century the term was routinely used to describe any painting, drawing, or print that depends for its effect on an extensive gradation of light and darkness.
 "chiaroscuro."  and  Britannica 2001 Standard Edition CD-ROM.   Copyright © 1994-2001 Britannica.com Inc.   November 19, 2002. 

genre n [F, fr. MF, kind, gender--more at gender] (1770) 1: a category of artistic, musical, or literary composition characterized by a particular style, form, or content 2: kind, sort 3: painting that depicts scenes or events from everyday life usu. realisticallyhe.do.nism n [Gk hedone pleasure; akin to Gk hedys sweet--more at sweet] (1856) 1: the doctrine that pleasure or happiness is the sole or chief good in life 2: a way of life based on or suggesting the principles of hedonism -- he.do.nist n -- he.do.nis.tic adj -- he.do.nis.ti.cal.ly adv
neo.clas.sic or neo.clas.si.cal adj (1877): of, relating to, or constituting a revival or adaptation of the classical esp. in literature, music, art, or architecture -- neo.clas.si.cism n -- neo.clas.si.cist n or adj

pas.to.ral adj [ME, fr. L pastoralis, fr. pastor herdsman] (15c) 1 a (1): of, relating to, or composed of shepherds or herdsmen (2): devoted to or based on livestock raising b: of or relating to the countryside: not urban c: portraying or expressive of the life of shepherds or country people esp. in an idealized and conventionalized manner <~ poetry> d: pleasingly peaceful and innocent: idyllic 2 a: of or relating to spiritual care or guidance esp. of a congregation b: of or relating to the pastor of a church -- pas.to.ral.ly adv -- pas.to.ral.ness n ²pastoral n (1584) 1 a: a literary work (as a poem or play) dealing with shepherds or rural life in a usu. artificial manner and typically drawing a contrast between the innocence and serenity of the simple life and the misery and corruption of city and esp. court life b: pastoral poetry or drama c: a rural picture or scene d: pastorale 1b 2: crosier 1 3: a letter of a pastor to his charge: as a: a letter addressed by a bishop to his diocese b: a letter of the house of bishops of the Protestant Episcopal Church to be read in each parish

ten.e.brism n, often cap [L tenebrae darkness] (1954): a style of painting esp. associated with the Italian painter Caravaggio and his followers in which most of the figures are engulfed in shadow but some are dramatically illuminated by a concentrated beam of light usu. from an identifiable source -- ten.e.brist n or adj, often cap
trompe l’oeil - (French: "deceive the eye"), in painting, the representation of an object with such verisimilitude as to deceive the viewer concerning the material reality of the object. This idea appealed to the ancient Greeks who were newly emancipated from the conventional stylizations of earlier art. Zeuxis, for example, reportedly painted such realistic grapes that birds tried to eat them. The technique was also popular with Roman muralists. Although trompe l’oeil never achieved the status of a major artistic aim, from the early Renaissance on, European painters occasionally fostered illusionism by painting false frames out of which the contents of a still life or portrait appeared to spill, or by creating window-like images suggesting actual openings in the wall or ceiling. (Brittanica)




Caravaggio (1569-1609)
Michelangelo Meresi Caravaggio 
Boy Being Bitten by a Lizard c1600
oil on canvas
Italian BaroqueTenebrism means using light as a spotlighting effect in a murky or dark scene.
ala prima-directly onto canvas; paints directly form life
chiaroscuro
Form:  This allegorical portrait incorporates a low key or earth toned palette combined with a very close point of view.  Caravaggio demonstrates a good mastery of the human face as well as  chiaroscuro .  According to the Brittanica, chiaroscuro(from Italian chiaro, "light"; scuro, "dark"), which is technique employed in the visual arts to represent light and shadow as they define three-dimensional objects.Caravaggio also uses an intense spotlight on his face while the rest of the picture plane is murky surrounding him.  This is called tenebrism and it is a way of creating a focus on a particular element in a work and also gives the work a sense of heightened drama.
The painting also feels like an immediate kind of "snapshot" of a young boy dressed in neoclassic clothing caught at the instance when a lizard bites his fingers.  The immediacy of the painting is complimented by the direct gaze and the facial expression of the figure.  This painting appears to be painted directly from life without using any previous studies or drawings.  This is called ala prima- (in the first) which means painting directly from observation onto canvas.
This painting also demonstrates Caravaggio's skill beyond his ability to paint the human form.  The clear vessel of water is what is referred to as an artist's conceit or concetto (italian for conceit) because painting a transparent vessel is one of the harder things to paint.  Caravaggio also has a fine command of painting drapery.
Even though the figure in this painting is placed in the visual center of the picture plane the light which rakes in from the upper left hand corner creates a strong diagonal across the picture plane.  The use of a diagonal in the composition of the picture plane is a very Baroque device.
Iconography:  Caravaggio was a rather outrageous and controversial man.  Many of his paintings demonstrate a rebellious and often ribald sense of humor.  This is an allegorical portrait of lust.  The young boy is probably the type of young man that Caravaggio held as the object of his desire.  Young male prostitutes were fairly common in cities during this time (as they are now) and it has been suggested by some sources that Caravaggio was a homosexual and a pederast.  The lizard hanging from the boy's finger may represent the cost of the lust and the cherries may be a reference to the concepts concerning "forbidden fruit" or possibly even virginity.
Context:  Caravaggio was an,
Italian baroque painter, who was the most revolutionary artist of his time and the best exemplar of naturalistic painting in the early 17th century. Originally named Michelangelo Merisi, Caravaggio was born September 28, 1573, in the Lombardy hill town of Caravaggio, from which his professional name is derived. Orphaned at age 11, he was apprenticed to the painter Simone Peterzano of Milan for four years. At some time between 1588 and 1592, Caravaggio went to Rome and worked as an assistant to Giuseppe Cesari, also known as the Cavaliere d'Arpino, for whom he executed fruit and flower pieces (now lost). Caravaggio's personal life was turbulent. He was often arrested and imprisoned. He fled Rome for Naples in 1606 when charged with murder. Later that year he traveled to Malta, was made a  knight, or cavaliere, of the Maltese order. In October of 1608, Caravaggio was again arrested and, escaping from a Maltese jail, went to Syracuse in Sicily. He died on the beach at Port'Ercole  in Tuscany on July 18, 1610, of a fever contracted after a mistaken arrest.




Caravaggio, Basket of Fruit c. 1597 
Oil on canvas, 46 x 64 cm 
Pinacoteca Ambrosiana, Milan
Italian Baroque
Form: This is a still life painting which is painted from an extraordinary point of view.  The basket and its contents are depicted from eye level.  The virtuosity of how realistically the surfaces and details of the basket, its contents, the moisture on the fruit and even the hints of decay are expressions of Caravaggio's skills.  It's interesting to note that this is often referred to as the completely dedicated still life painting of its kind sincePompeii (79 CE).Iconography:  Paintings like this one depicting fruit is symbolic of the pleasures of every day life and perhaps of the delicacies one might desire.  Fruit was not available all year and it is one of the fleeting pleasures.  The depictions of fruit and other delicacies, such as Herakleitos' Unswept Floor (fig 6-58) are references to the wealth of the patron and the skill of the artist.
The depictions of the decay caused by the worms in the apple and on the leaves may be a memento mori.  That although these are delicacies and treasured parts of enjoying life, sometimes such things are transitory and fleeting.


Caravaggio. Boy with a Basket of Fruit, c1593
oil on canvas, 27.5x26"
Galleria Borghese, Rome
Italian Baroque
In this image, Boy with a Basket of Fruit, c1593, Caravaggio combines the formal qualities and iconographic elements of Boy Being Bitten by a Lizard and Basket of Fruit.Why do you think he does this and what message is being communicated? 







Conversion of St. Paul1601 by Caravaggio
Italian Baroque
Form:  This painting is typical of Caravaggio's style and exhibits all the hallmarks of it.  Here we see heightened tenebrism and chiaroscuro as well as an ambiguous use of space.  Caravaggio almost always pushes al his figures up against the front of the picture plane and creates an ambiguous and unrecognizable environment.  For Caravaggio the background and environment are often unimportant and some critics have charged that he didn't bother with the background or had trouble unifying his composition and so just create a well of darkness to unify it.In this image Saul of Tarsus, the saint-to-be, is represented flat on his back, his arms thrown up, while an old servant appears to maneuver the horse away from its fallen master. The horse fills the picture as if it were the hero, and its explicitness and the angle from which it is viewed might betray some irreverence on the part of the artist for this subject.  One critic who objected to the intertangling of the limbs of the horse and figures called the painting an "accident in a blacksmith's shop."
Caravaggio used real people for his models and so the clothing and faces incorporate a strong  genre element. 
Iconography:  Light in Caravaggio's paintings is an icon of God's power and of enlightenment.  Caravaggio seems to literally be translating the imagery from the Bible.  According to Acts Chapter 27, Paul describes, 

6
"On that journey as I drew near to Damascus, about noon a great light from the sky suddenly shone around me.
7
I fell to the ground and heard a voice saying to me, 'Saul, Saul, why are you persecuting me?'
8
I replied, 'Who are you, sir?' And he said to me, 'I am Jesus the Nazorean whom you are persecuting.'
9
My companions saw the light but did not hear the voice of the one who spoke to me.
10 I asked, 'What shall I do, sir?' The Lord answered me, 'Get up and go into Damascus, and there you will be told about everything appointed for you to do.'
11 Since I could see nothing because of the brightness of that light, I was led by hand by my companions and entered Damascus.
12 "A certain Ananias, a devout observer of the law, and highly spoken of by all the Jews who lived there,
13 came to me and stood there and said, 'Saul, my brother, regain your sight.' And at that very moment I regained my sight and saw him.
14 Then he said, 'The God of our ancestors designated you to know his will, to see the Righteous One, and to hear the sound of his voice;
15 for you will be his witness 2 before all to what you have seen and heard.
http://www.nccbuscc.org/nab/bible/acts/acts22.htm#v3

Also see Acts Chapter 9
For full text of the passage go here:  http://www.nccbuscc.org/nab/bible/acts/acts9.htm
Context:  Caravaggio's Conversion of Paul, was considered scandalous because in it he devotes so much of the canvas to the horse's rear.  Visually he is literally "mooning" the audience.  Observers also found Paul's prone position and the intermingling of his limbs with the horses somewhat objectionable.

Caravaggio  (1569-1609) 
Calling of St. Matthew- 1597-1601, 
Oil on canvas, located in the Contarelli Chapel, San Luigi dei Francesi.
Italian Baroque

 
St. Matthew Cycle (Contarelli Chapel) c1602
Rome,St.Luigi dei Francesi
The paintings in situ.
Italian Baroque
Form: Even though the figures in this painting are arranged in a band across the front of the picture plane, the light which rakes in from the upper right hand corner creates a strong diagonal across the picture plane.  The use of a diagonal in the composition of the picture plane is a very Baroque device.From "Caravaggio", by Alfred Moir:
 "The subject traditionally was represented either indoors or out; sometimes Saint Matthew is shown inside a building, with Christ outside (following the Biblical text) summoning him through a window. Both before and after Caravaggio the subject was often used as a pretext for anecdotal genre paintings. Caravaggio may well have been familiar with earlier Netherlandish paintings of money lenders or of gamblers seated around a table like Saint Matthew and his associates.
"Caravaggio represented the event as a nearly silent, dramatic narrative. The sequence of actions before and after this moment can be easily and convincingly re-created. The tax-gatherer Levi (Saint Matthew's name before he became the apostle) was seated at a table with his four assistants, counting the day's proceeds, the group lighted from a source at the upper right of the painting. Christ, His eyes veiled, with His halo the only hint of divinity, enters with Saint Peter. A gesture of His right hand, all the more powerful and compelling because of its languor, summons Levi. Surprised by the intrusion and perhaps dazzled by the sudden light from the just-opened door, Levi draws back and gestures toward himself with his left hand as if to say, "Who, me?", his right hand remaining on the coin he had been counting before Christ's entrance.
"The two figures on the left, derived from a 1545 Hans Holbein print representing gamblers unaware of the appearance of Death, are so concerned with counting the money that they do not even notice Christ's arrival; symbolically their inattention to Christ deprives them of the opportunity He offers for eternal life, and condemns them to death. The two boys in the center do respond, the younger one drawing back against Levi as if seeking his protection, the swaggering older one, who is armed, leaning forward a little menacingly. Saint Peter gestures firmly with his hand to calm his potential resistance. The dramatic point of the picture is that for this moment, no one does anything. Christ's appearance is so unexpected and His gesture so commanding as to suspend action for a shocked instant, before reaction can take place. In another second, Levi will rise up and follow Christ - in fact, Christ's feet are already turned as if to leave the room. The particular power of the picture is in this cessation of action. It utilizes the fundamentally static medium of painting to convey characteristic human indecision after a challenge or command and before reaction.
"The picture is divided into two parts. The standing figures on the right form a vertical rectangle; those gathered around the table on the left a horizontal block. The costumes reinforce the contrast. Levi and his subordinates, who are involved in affairs of this world, are dressed in a contemporary mode, while the barefoot Christ and Saint Peter, who summon Levi to another life and world, appear in timeless cloaks. The two groups are also separated by a void, bridged literally and symbolically by Christ's hand. This hand, like Adam's in Michelangelo's Creation, unifies the two parts formally and psychologically. Underlying the shallow stage-like space of the picture is a grid pattern of verticals and horizontals, which knit it together structurally.
"The light has been no less carefully manipulated: the visible window covered with oilskin, very likely to provide diffused light in the painter's studio; the upper light, to illuminate Saint Matthew's face and the seated group; and the light behind Christ and Saint Peter, introduced only with them. It may be that this third source of light is intended as miraculous. Otherwise, why does Saint Peter cast no shadow on the defensive youth facing him?"
Matthew
Chapter 9
1
1 He entered a boat, made the crossing, and came into his own town.
2
And there people brought to him a paralytic lying on a stretcher. When Jesus saw their faith, he said to the paralytic, "Courage, child, your sins are forgiven."
3
At that, some of the scribes 2 said to themselves, "This man is blaspheming."
4
Jesus knew what they were thinking, and said, "Why do you harbor evil thoughts?
5
Which is easier, to say, 'Your sins are forgiven,' or to say, 'Rise and walk'?
6
3 But that you may know that the Son of Man has authority on earth to forgive sins" --he then said to the paralytic, "Rise, pick up your stretcher, and go home."
7
He rose and went home.
8
4 When the crowds saw this they were struck with awe and glorified God who had given such authority to human beings.
9
5 6 As Jesus passed on from there, he saw a man named Matthew sitting at the customs post. He said to him, "Follow me." And he got up and followed him.
10 While he was at table in his house, 7 many tax collectors and sinners came and sat with Jesus and his disciples.
11 The Pharisees saw this and said to his disciples, "Why does your teacher 8 eat with tax collectors and sinners?"
12 He heard this and said, "Those who are well do not need a physician, but the sick do. 9
13 Go and learn the meaning of the words, 'I desire mercy, not sacrifice.' 10 I did not come to call the righteous but sinners."
http://www.nccbuscc.org/nab/bible/matthew/matthew9.htm
Almost the the same account is given in Luke 5:27 http://www.nccbuscc.org/nab/bible/luke/luke5.htm

Caravaggio St. Matthew and the Angel
destroyed during WW II
Italian Baroque

Caravaggio, 
Inspiration of St. Matthew
Italian Baroque
Form:  Although only a black and white reproduction survives the image entitled St. Matthew and the Angel, we know that originally would have looked very similar in color and value structure to theInspiration of St. Matthew.Some major differences do exist however.  The point of view is quite different in both as is the costuming and the interaction of the two figures.  In the image on the left, Matthew is bare legged, entwined with the angel in a transparent gauze like gown and his facial expression is rather dumb.  Although the viewer is placed in a vantage point from above, the viewer is still confronted with the bare feet of the saint as they project out into the foreground.  The image on the right is just the opposite in almost every way.
Iconography:  The iconography of this scene concerns itself with an image in which Matthew composes his gospel long after the death and ascension of Jesus.  Matthew is described as having received divine inspiration and guidance for his account from an angel.  Nevertheless, the angel in the left hand image is guiding Matthew's hand in a rather provocative manner.  This manner, coupled with the bare legs and befuddled almost senile expression on the saints face is what ultimately led to this image being rejected by the patrons.  Caravaggio then painted its replacement the Inspiration of St. Matthew.
Context:  It is precisely this kind of irreverence and rebellious "thumbing his nose" at the patron that both earned Caravaggio his notoriety as well as his infamous reputation.
Caravaggisti- a follower of Caravaggio



Caravaggio St. Matthew and the Angel
destroyed during WW II
Italian Baroque

Rembrandt St. Matthew and the Angel 1661
Dutch Baroque
Form:  As in the last comparison only a black and white reproduction survives the image entitled St. Matthew and the Angel, we know that originally would have looked very similar in color and value structure to the the painting by Rembrandt.Rembrandt painted his image more than 50 years after Caravaggio painted his but Rembrandt's portrait of the saint follows many of the same schema as Caravaggio.  Both usetenebrism as a way of creating a focus on St. Matthew and to heighten the drama.  In this way and for this reason, Rembrandt, and other artists who copy Caravaggio's style are often referred to as caravaggisti which literally means a follower of Caravaggio.
Iconography:  Rembrandt depicts Matthew in a similar manner to Caravaggio however, in his depiction Matthew is not as aware of the angel as in either one by Caravaggio
Rembrandt also incorporates and element of the genre imagery in his work.  Matthew looks like one of the Jews that he might have known in Amsterdam and Rembrandt also attempts to authenticate the Persian or middle eastern quality of the image by providing Matthew with a turbine.
Context:  Many artists, including Rembrandt, Velázquez, Gentileschi and others took their cue form the works of Caravaggio and we refer to them all as Caravaggistis.


Caravaggio Death of the Virgin 1605-1606
Italian Baroque
This is another one of those paintings that Caravaggio got in trouble for.  This is an apochryphal story concerning the death of Mary.  In Caravaggio's depiction of the dead saint he depicts her in a very real way.  Her feet are dirty, her body and hair are disheveled and her skin is past an white.  Her appearance is so "life like" or really "death like" because Caravaggio used the corpse of a prostitute that the authorities had pulled from the Tiber river in Rome as his model. 




al.le.go.ry n, pl -ries [ME allegorie, fr. L allegoria, fr. Gk allegoria, fr. allegorein to speak figuratively, fr. allos other + -egorein to speak publicly, fr. agora assembly--more at else, agora] (14c) 1: the expression by means of symbolic fictional figures and actions of truths or generalizations about human existence; also: an instance (as in a story or painting) of such expression 2: a symbolic representation: emblem 2apoc.ry.pha n pl but sing or pl in constr [ML, fr. LL, neut. pl. of apocryphus secret, not canonical, fr. Gk apokryphos obscure, fr. apokryptein to hide away, fr. apo- + kryptein to hide--more at crypt] (14c) 1: writings or statements of dubious authenticity 2 cap a: books included in the Septuagint and Vulgate but excluded from the Jewish and Protestant canons of the Old Testament b: early Christian writings not included in the New Testament
apoc.ry.phal adj (1590) 1: of doubtful authenticity: spurious 2 often cap: of or resembling the Apocrypha syn see fictitious -- apoc.ry.phal.ly adv -- apoc.ry.phal.ness n
ar.ca.di.an adj, often cap (1589) 1: idyllically pastoral; esp: idyllically innocent, simple, or untroubled 2 a: of or relating to Arcadia or the Arcadians b: of or relating to Arcadian Ar.ca.di.an n (1590) 1 often not cap: a person who lives a simple quiet life 2: a native or inhabitant of Arcadia 3: the dialect of ancient Greek used in Arcadia
According to the Brittanica,
Modern Greek ARKADHÍA, mountainous region of the central Peloponnesus of ancient Greece. The pastoral character of Arcadian life together with its isolation partially explains why it was represented as a paradise in Greek and Roman bucolic poetry and in the literature of the Renaissance. The region is not exactly coextensive with the present-day nomós (department) of Arkadhía, which extends on the east to the Gulf of Argolis. The capital of the nomos is Trípolis.





chiaroscuro
chiar.oscu.ro n, pl -ros [It, fr. chiaro clear, light + oscuro obscure, dark] (1686) 1: pictorial representation in terms of light and shade without regard to color 2 a: the arrangement or treatment of light and dark parts in a pictorial work of art b: the interplay or contrast of dissimilar qualities (as of mood or character) 3: a 16th century woodcut technique involving the use of several blocks to print different tones of the same color; also: a print made by this technique 4: the interplay of light and shadow on or as if on a surface 5: the quality of being veiled or partly in shadowAccording to the Brittanica, 
Chiaroscuro (from Italian chiaro, "light"; scuro, "dark"),
technique employed in the visual arts to represent light and shadow as they define three-dimensional objects.
Some evidence exists that ancient Greek and Roman artists used chiaroscuro effects, but in European painting the technique was first brought to its full potential by Leonardo da Vinci in the late 15th century in such paintings as his "Adoration of the Magi" (1481; Uffizi, Florence). Thereafter, chiaroscuro became a primary technique for many painters, and by the late 17th century the term was routinely used to describe any painting, drawing, or print that depends for its effect on an extensive gradation of light and darkness.
 "chiaroscuro."  and  Britannica 2001 Standard Edition CD-ROM.   Copyright © 1994-2001 Britannica.com Inc.   November 19, 2002. 

genre n [F, fr. MF, kind, gender--more at gender] (1770) 1: a category of artistic, musical, or literary composition characterized by a particular style, form, or content 2: kind, sort 3: painting that depicts scenes or events from everyday life usu. realisticallyhe.do.nism n [Gk hedone pleasure; akin to Gk hedys sweet--more at sweet] (1856) 1: the doctrine that pleasure or happiness is the sole or chief good in life 2: a way of life based on or suggesting the principles of hedonism -- he.do.nist n -- he.do.nis.tic adj -- he.do.nis.ti.cal.ly adv
neo.clas.sic or neo.clas.si.cal adj (1877): of, relating to, or constituting a revival or adaptation of the classical esp. in literature, music, art, or architecture -- neo.clas.si.cism n -- neo.clas.si.cist n or adj

pas.to.ral adj [ME, fr. L pastoralis, fr. pastor herdsman] (15c) 1 a (1): of, relating to, or composed of shepherds or herdsmen (2): devoted to or based on livestock raising b: of or relating to the countryside: not urban c: portraying or expressive of the life of shepherds or country people esp. in an idealized and conventionalized manner <~ poetry> d: pleasingly peaceful and innocent: idyllic 2 a: of or relating to spiritual care or guidance esp. of a congregation b: of or relating to the pastor of a church -- pas.to.ral.ly adv -- pas.to.ral.ness n ²pastoral n (1584) 1 a: a literary work (as a poem or play) dealing with shepherds or rural life in a usu. artificial manner and typically drawing a contrast between the innocence and serenity of the simple life and the misery and corruption of city and esp. court life b: pastoral poetry or drama c: a rural picture or scene d: pastorale 1b 2: crosier 1 3: a letter of a pastor to his charge: as a: a letter addressed by a bishop to his diocese b: a letter of the house of bishops of the Protestant Episcopal Church to be read in each parish
ped.er.ast n [Gk paiderastes, lit., lover of boys, fr. paid- ped- + erastes lover, fr. erasthai to love--more at eros] (ca. 1736): one that practices anal intercourse esp. with a boy -- ped.er.as.tic adj -- ped.er.as.ty n
rib.ald n [ME, fr. MF ribaut, ribauld wanton, rascal, fr. riber to be wanton, of Gmc origin; akin to OHG riban to be wanton, lit., to rub] (13c): a ribald person ²ribald adj (1508) 1: crude, offensive <~ language> 2: characterized by or using coarse indecent humor syn see coarse
ten.e.brism n, often cap [L tenebrae darkness] (1954): a style of painting esp. associated with the Italian painter Caravaggio and his followers in which most of the figures are engulfed in shadow but some are dramatically illuminated by a concentrated beam of light usu. from an identifiable source -- ten.e.brist n or adj, often cap
according to the Brittanica,
"in the history of Western painting, the use of extreme contrasts of light and dark in figurative compositions to heighten their dramatic effect. (The term is derived from the Latin tenebrae, "darkness.") In tenebrist paintings the figures are often portrayed against a background of intense darkness, but the figures themselves are illuminated by a bright, searching light that sets off their three-dimensional forms by a harsh but exquisitely controlled chiaroscuro . The technique was introduced by the Italian painter Caravaggio (1571?-1610) and was taken up in the early 17th century by painters influenced by him, including the French painter Georges de La Tour, the Dutch painters Gerrit van Honthorst and Hendrik Terbrugghen, and the Spanish painter Francisco de Zurbarán."
trompe l’oeil - (French: "deceive the eye"), in painting, the representation of an object with such verisimilitude as to deceive the viewer concerning the material reality of the object. This idea appealed to the ancient Greeks who were newly emancipated from the conventional stylizations of earlier art. Zeuxis, for example, reportedly painted such realistic grapes that birds tried to eat them. The technique was also popular with Roman muralists. Although trompe l’oeil never achieved the status of a major artistic aim, from the early Renaissance on, European painters occasionally fostered illusionism by painting false frames out of which the contents of a still life or portrait appeared to spill, or by creating window-like images suggesting actual openings in the wall or ceiling. (Brittanica)






Orazio Gentileschi Rest on the Flight into Egypt, 1628, canvas, 
Musée du Louvre, Paris
Italian Baroque
According to the Brittanica,

from Caravaggio 
Influence.The many painters who imitated Caravaggio's style soon became known as Caravaggisti. Caravaggio's influence in Rome itself was remarkable but short-lived, lasting only until the 1620s. His foremost followers elsewhere in Italy were Orazio Gentileschi, Artemisia Gentileschi, and the Spaniard José de Ribera. Outside Italy, the Dutch painters Hendrick Terbrugghen, Gerrit van Honthorst, and Dirck van Baburen made the city of Utrecht the foremost northern centre of Caravaggism. The single most important painter in the tradition was the Frenchman Georges de La Tour, though echoes of Caravaggio's style can also be found in the works of such giants as Rembrandt van Rijn and Diego Velázquez.
According to the Brittanica, Orazio Gentileschi (1562-1639) whose,
original name ORAZIO LOMI Italian Baroque painter, one of the more important painters who came under the influence of Caravaggio and who was one of the more successful interpreters of his style.
Gentileschi first studied with his half brother Aurelio Lomi. At some time in the late 1570s or early 1580s he went to Rome, where, with the landscape painter Agostino Tassi, he painted frescoes in churches of Santa Maria Maggiore, San Giovanni Laterano, and Santa Nicola in Carcere from about 1590 to 1600, executing figures for Tassi's landscapes.In the first years of the 17th century Gentileschi came under the influence of Caravaggio, also in Rome at the time. His paintings of this period (e.g., "David and Goliath," 1610?, and "St. Cecilia and the Angel," 1610?) employ Caravaggio's use of dramatic, unconventional gesture and monumental composition, his uncompromising realism and contemporary representation of figure types, and to some extent his strong chiaroscuro, or light-and-dark contrast. Shortly afterward Gentileschi developed a Tuscan lyricism foreign to Caravaggio's almost brutal vitality, a lighter palette, and a more precise treatment reminiscent of his Mannerist beginnings. From 1621 to 1623 Gentileschi was in Genoa, where he painted his masterpiece, "The Annunciation" (1623), a work of consummate grace that shows a weakening of Caravaggio's influence. The composition still depends on dramatic gestures, here of the Virgin and the angel, and there is still a strong immediacy to the incident and an absence of idealization. The mood, however, is more restrained and lyrical than in his earlier works, the colours are light, and the earlier chiaroscuro is absent.
After a stay in France, Gentileschi traveled to England in 1626 at the invitation of King Charles I; he remained there as court painter for the rest of his life, his work becoming increasingly conventional and decorative. His last major work is an ambitious series of ceiling paintings for the Queen's House, Greenwich, painted probably after 1635, and now in Marlborough House, London.
Orazio had a daughter named Artemisia (1593-1652/53) who was also a painter. According to the Brittanica,
Italian painter, daughter of Orazio Gentileschi, who was a major follower of the revolutionary Baroque painter Caravaggio. She was an important second-generation proponent of Caravaggio's dramatic realism.A pupil of her father and of his friend, the landscape painter Agostino Tassi, she painted at first in a style indistinguishable from her father's somewhat lyrical interpretation of Caravaggio's example. Her first known work is "Susanna and the Elders" (1610), an accomplished work long attributed to her father. She was raped by Tassi, and, when he did not fulfill his promise to marry her, Orazio Gentileschi in 1612 brought him to trial. During that event she herself was forced to give evidence under torture. She married a Florentine shortly after the trial and joined the Academy of Design in Florence in 1616. While in Florence she began to develop her own distinct style. Her colours are more brilliant than her father's, and she continued to employ the tenebrism made popular by Caravaggio long after her father had abandoned that style. Although her compositions were graceful, she was perhaps the most violent of all the Caravaggisti; she illustrated such subjects as the story from the Apocrypha of Judith, the Jewish heroine, beheading Holofernes, an invading general.
Artemisia Gentileschi was in Rome for a time and also in Venice. About 1630 she moved to Naples and in 1638-39 visited her father in London. There she painted many portraits and quickly surpassed her father's fame. Later, probably in 1640 or 1641, she settled in Naples, but little is known of the final years of her life.
Artemisia Gentileschi.  Self Portrait as Allegory 
of Painting or "La Pittura" 1630 
Oil on Canvas
Kensington Palace
Italian Baroque
Sofonisba Anguissola, 
Self Portrait of the Artist 
with Sisters and Governess. 1555 
(The Chess Game)
oil on canvas, 27"x37" 
Nardowe Museum, Poznan, Poland
Italian Renaissance/Mannerist
Form: This self portrait demonstrates her skill as a painter.  The angle from which she chose to paint herself is an awkward one and she almost certainly had to set up several mirrors in order to bounce her reflection around until she was able to see herself.  She uses many of the standard formal schemas of Caravaggio's work, tenebrism, a low key earth toned pallete and heightened chiaroscuro.  Like Caravaggio she also has a fine command of painting drapery.Iconography:  According to the Webgalleries website,
An example of Gentileschi's mature work, this painting depicts the artist not only in a self portrait but also as Pittura, the originator of the art of painting. Artemisia has given us her image, painted in profile, and the attributes of the personification of painting in accordance with Ripa's Iconologia. Around her neck, she wears the golden chain and the mask of imitation. Her disheveled hair depicts the divine frenzy of artistic temperament, and the handling of color on her dress shows Artemisia's skill as an artist. Although other artists have depicted Pittura, Artemisia's portrait is unique because only a female artist would be able to depict herself as the allegory of painting. Until this time, the male artists who worked this theme had to add a female figurehead to represent Ripa's Pittura.
http://www.webgalleries.com/pm/colors/gentile.html
Artemisia also updates her depiction almost with the same use of genre as Caravaggio.  In this image she dresses her allegorical Pittura as a 17th century woman.Context:  Artemisia self portrait is interesting because her depiction of herself is quite different than one might expect a female painter to create.  Comparing her self portrait against Sofonisba Anguissola's may give you some insight as to how her past has influenced her life. 


Artimisia Gentileschi, 
Judith Slaying Holofernes c1620
Judith Beheading Holofernes
Oil on Canvas
Uffizi Gallery, Florence
Italian Baroque
Caravaggio, Judith Slaying Holofernesc1600
Italian Baroque
Artimisia Gentileschi 
Judith with the head of Holofernes c1625
Detroit, Institute of Art
Italian BaroqueGentileschi's images feel "real." The postures and movement in Gentileschi's images are fluid and naturalistic.  One feels the struggle the two women face in trying to escape. Unlike Caravaggio's painting, Judith and Holofernes,Gentileschi's image shows powerful women. In Caravaggio's the servant is an old woman as opposed to the young beautiful and powerful maid accompanying Judith in Gentileshi's images.



It has been argued that this painting expresses Artemisia's psychological revenge on Tassi. It is, in fact, one of several canvas' which Artemisia based the Judith theme, but the subject matter was a popular one and was treated by many artists throughout the centuries. What makes this painting unique, however, is Artemisia's rendering of Judith as a strong and capable heroine. While many depictions of Judith show her after the slaying of Holofernes, Gentileschi gives us Judith in the act of killing the man. The subject matter is taken from the Book of Judith whereby Judith liberates her people by slaying the evil tyrant. She has entered the enemy camp under the guise of seducing Holofernes and when he falls asleep she hacks off his head with his sword. Carrying back his head in a bag, she presents it to her people, who then go on to defeat the Assyrians. The dark background and single source of light add psychological tension and drama to the scene and cause it to play out beyond the boarders of the canvas. We, as spectators, have become witness to a murder.
http://www.webgalleries.com/pm/colors/gentile.html



Gentileschi, Susanna and the Elders c1640
Italian Baroque

.

The Story of Susanna and the Elders
The second addition to Daniel, (Daniel 17) the story of Susanna, and the third one,
Bel and the Dragon, are preserved in two Greek versions. In both stories
the hero is the wise Daniel. Susanna was the pious and beautiful wife of
Joakim, a wealthy Jew in Babylon. Two aged judges became inflamed
with love for her. They tried to force her to yield to their lust, and, when
she refused, they accused her of committing adultery with a young man,
who escaped. She was condemned to death, but when Daniel
cross-examined the two elders separately, the first stated that Susanna
had been surprised under a mastic tree, the other under a holm tree.
Susanna was thus saved and the two false witnesses executed.


This page is a direct quote from: Copyright © 1994-1997 Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. 
To cite this page: 
"Biblical Literature and Its Critical Interpretation: Intertestamental literature: 
APOCRYPHAL WRITINGS: Additions to Daniel and Esther.." Britannica Online. 

[Accessed 25 September 1997]. 


The Story of Susanna and the Elders 
(directly quoted from this site gopher://ccat.sas.upenn.edu:3333/00/Religious/Biblical/KJVBible/Apocrypha/Sus_KJV.txt) 
Set apart from the beginning of Daniel, because it is not in the Hebrew, as neither the Narration of Bel and the Dragon.
Sus 1:1
There dwelt a man in Babylon, called Joacim:
Sus 1:2
And he took a wife, whose name was Susanna, the daughter of
Chelcias, a very fair woman, and one that feared the Lord.
Sus 1:3
Her parents also were righteous, and taught their daughter
according to the law of Moses.
Sus 1:4
Now Joacim was a great rich man, and had a fair garden
joining unto his house: and to him resorted the Jews; because he
was more honourable than all others.
Sus 1:5
The same year were appointed two of the ancients of the
people to be judges, such as the Lord spake of, that wickedness
came from Babylon from ancient judges, who seemed to govern the
people.
Sus 1:6
These kept much at Joacim's house: and all that had any suits
in law came unto them.
Sus 1:7
Now when the people departed away at noon, Susanna went into
her husband's garden to walk.
Sus 1:8
And the two elders saw her going in every day, and walking;
so that their lust was inflamed toward her.
Sus 1:9
And they perverted their own mind, and turned away their
eyes, that they might not look unto heaven, nor remember just
judgments.
Sus 1:10
And albeit they both were wounded with her love, yet durst
not one shew another his grief.
Sus 1:11
For they were ashamed to declare their lust, that they
desired to have to do with her.
Sus 1:12
Yet they watched diligently from day to day to see her.
Sus 1:13
And the one said to the other, Let us now go home: for it is
dinner time.
Sus 1:14
So when they were gone out, they parted the one from the
other, and turning back again they came to the same place; and
after that they had asked one another the cause, they
acknowledged their lust: then appointed they a time both
together, when they might find her alone.
Sus 1:15
And it fell out, as they watched a fit time, she went in as
before with two maids only, and she was desirous to wash herself
in the garden: for it was hot.
Sus 1:16
And there was no body there save the two elders, that had hid
themselves, and watched her.
Sus 1:17
Then she said to her maids, Bring me oil and washing balls,
and shut the garden doors, that I may wash me.
Sus 1:18
And they did as she bade them, and shut the garden doors, and
went out themselves at privy doors to fetch the things that she
had commanded them: but they saw not the elders, because they
were hid.
Sus 1:19
Now when the maids were gone forth, the two elders rose up,
and ran unto her, saying,
Sus 1:20
Behold, the garden doors are shut, that no man can see us,
and we are in love with thee; therefore consent unto us, and lie
with us.
Sus 1:21
If thou wilt not, we will bear witness against thee, that a
young man was with thee: and therefore thou didst send away thy
maids from thee.
Sus 1:22
Then Susanna sighed, and said, I am straitened on every side:
for if I do this thing, it is death unto me: and if I do it not
I cannot escape your hands.
Sus 1:23
It is better for me to fall into your hands, and not do it,
than to sin in the sight of the Lord.
Sus 1:24
With that Susanna cried with a loud voice: and the two elders
cried out against her.
Sus 1:25
Then ran the one, and opened the garden door.
Sus 1:26
So when the servants of the house heard the cry in the
garden, they rushed in at the privy door, to see what was done
unto her.
Sus 1:27
But when the elders had declared their matter, the servants
were greatly ashamed: for there was never such a report made of
Susanna.
Sus 1:28
And it came to pass the next day, when the people were
assembled to her husband Joacim, the two elders came also full
of mischievous imagination against Susanna to put her to death;
Sus 1:29
And said before the people, Send for Susanna, the daughter of
Chelcias, Joacim's wife. And so they sent.
Sus 1:30
So she came with her father and mother, her children, and all
her kindred.
Sus 1:31
Now Susanna was a very delicate woman, and beauteous to
behold.
Sus 1:32
And these wicked men commanded to uncover her face, (for she
was covered) that they might be filled with her beauty.
Sus 1:33
Therefore her friends and all that saw her wept.
Sus 1:34
Then the two elders stood up in the midst of the people, and
laid their hands upon her head.
Sus 1:35
And she weeping looked up toward heaven: for her heart
trusted in the Lord.
Sus 1:36
And the elders said, As we walked in the garden alone, this
woman came in with two maids, and shut the garden doors, and
sent the maids away.
Sus 1:37
Then a young man, who there was hid, came unto her, and lay
with her.
Sus 1:38
Then we that stood in a corner of the garden, seeing this
wickedness, ran unto them.
Sus 1:39
And when we saw them together, the man we could not hold: for
he was stronger than we, and opened the door, and leaped out.
Sus 1:40
But having taken this woman, we asked who the young man was,
but she would not tell us: these things do we testify.
Sus 1:41
Then the assembly believed them as those that were the elders
and judges of the people: so they condemned her to death.
Sus 1:42
Then Susanna cried out with a loud voice, and said, O
everlasting God, that knowest the secrets, and knowest all
things before they be:
Sus 1:43
Thou knowest that they have borne false witness against me,
and, behold, I must die; whereas I never did such things as
these men have maliciously invented against me.
Sus 1:44
And the Lord heard her voice.
Sus 1:45
Therefore when she was led to be put to death, the Lord
raised up the holy spirit of a young youth whose name was
Daniel:
Sus 1:46
Who cried with a loud voice, I am clear from the blood of
this woman.
Sus 1:47
Then all the people turned them toward him, and said, What
mean these words that thou hast spoken?
Sus 1:48
So he standing in the midst of them said, Are ye such fools,
ye sons of Israel, that without examination or knowledge of the
truth ye have condemned a daughter of Israel?
Sus 1:49
Return again to the place of judgment: for they have borne
false witness against her.
Sus 1:50
Wherefore all the people turned again in haste, and the
elders said unto him, Come, sit down among us, and shew it us,
seeing God hath given thee the honour of an elder.
Sus 1:51
Then said Daniel unto them, Put these two aside one far from
another, and I will examine them.
Sus 1:52
So when they were put asunder one from another, he called one
of them, and said unto him, O thou that art waxen old in
wickedness, now thy sins which thou hast committed aforetime are
come to light.
Sus 1:53
For thou hast pronounced false judgment and hast condemned
the innocent and hast let the guilty go free; albeit the Lord
saith, The innocent and righteous shalt thou not slay.
Sus 1:54
Now then, if thou hast seen her, tell me, Under what tree
sawest thou them companying together? Who answered, Under a
mastick tree.
Sus 1:55
And Daniel said, Very well; thou hast lied against thine own
head; for even now the angel of God hath received the sentence
of God to cut thee in two.
Sus 1:56
So he put him aside, and commanded to bring the other, and
said unto him, O thou seed of Chanaan, and not of Juda, beauty
hath deceived thee, and lust hath perverted thine heart.
Sus 1:57
Thus have ye dealt with the daughters of Israel, and they for
fear companied with you: but the daughter of Juda would not
abide your wickedness.
Sus 1:58
Now therefore tell me, Under what tree didst thou take them
companying together? Who answered, Under an holm tree.
Sus 1:59
Then said Daniel unto him, Well; thou hast also lied against
thine own head: for the angel of God waiteth with the sword to
cut thee in two, that he may destroy you.
Sus 1:60
With that all the assembly cried out with a loud voice, and
praised God, who saveth them that trust in him.
Sus 1:61
And they arose against the two elders, for Daniel had
convicted them of false witness by their own mouth:
Sus 1:62
And according to the law of Moses they did unto them in such
sort as they maliciously intended to do to their neighbour: and
they put them to death. Thus the innocent blood was saved the
same day.
Sus 1:63
Therefore Chelcias and his wife praised God for their
daughter Susanna, with Joacim her husband, and all the kindred,
because there was no dishonesty found in her.
Sus 1:64
From that day forth was Daniel had in great reputation in the
sight of the people.

al.le.go.ry n, pl -ries [ME allegorie, fr. L allegoria, fr. Gk allegoria, fr. allegorein to speak figuratively, fr. allos other + -egorein to speak publicly, fr. agora assembly--more at else, agora] (14c) 1: the expression by means of symbolic fictional figures and actions of truths or generalizations about human existence; also: an instance (as in a story or painting) of such expression 2: a symbolic representation: emblem 2apoc.ry.pha n pl but sing or pl in constr [ML, fr. LL, neut. pl. of apocryphus secret, not canonical, fr. Gk apokryphos obscure, fr. apokryptein to hide away, fr. apo- + kryptein to hide--more at crypt] (14c) 1: writings or statements of dubious authenticity 2 cap a: books included in the Septuagint and Vulgate but excluded from the Jewish and Protestant canons of the Old Testament b: early Christian writings not included in the New Testament
apoc.ry.phal adj (1590) 1: of doubtful authenticity: spurious 2 often cap: of or resembling the Apocrypha syn see fictitious -- apoc.ry.phal.ly adv -- apoc.ry.phal.ness n
ar.ca.di.an adj, often cap (1589) 1: idyllically pastoral; esp: idyllically innocent, simple, or untroubled 2 a: of or relating to Arcadia or the Arcadians b: of or relating to Arcadian Ar.ca.di.an n (1590) 1 often not cap: a person who lives a simple quiet life 2: a native or inhabitant of Arcadia 3: the dialect of ancient Greek used in Arcadia
According to the Brittanica,
Modern Greek ARKADHÍA, mountainous region of the central Peloponnesus of ancient Greece. The pastoral character of Arcadian life together with its isolation partially explains why it was represented as a paradise in Greek and Roman bucolic poetry and in the literature of the Renaissance. The region is not exactly coextensive with the present-day nomós (department) of Arkadhía, which extends on the east to the Gulf of Argolis. The capital of the nomos is Trípolis.


chiar.oscu.ro n, pl -ros [It, fr. chiaro clear, light + oscuro obscure, dark] (1686) 1: pictorial representation in terms of light and shade without regard to color 2 a: the arrangement or treatment of light and dark parts in a pictorial work of art b: the interplay or contrast of dissimilar qualities (as of mood or character) 3: a 16th century woodcut technique involving the use of several blocks to print different tones of the same color; also: a print made by this technique 4: the interplay of light and shadow on or as if on a surface 5: the quality of being veiled or partly in shadowAccording to the Brittanica, 
Chiaroscuro (from Italian chiaro, "light"; scuro, "dark"),
technique employed in the visual arts to represent light and shadow as they define three-dimensional objects.
Some evidence exists that ancient Greek and Roman artists used chiaroscuro effects, but in European painting the technique was first brought to its full potential by Leonardo da Vinci in the late 15th century in such paintings as his "Adoration of the Magi" (1481; Uffizi, Florence). Thereafter, chiaroscuro became a primary technique for many painters, and by the late 17th century the term was routinely used to describe any painting, drawing, or print that depends for its effect on an extensive gradation of light and darkness.
 "chiaroscuro."  and  Britannica 2001 Standard Edition CD-ROM.   Copyright © 1994-2001 Britannica.com Inc.   November 19, 2002. 
genre n [F, fr. MF, kind, gender--more at gender] (1770) 1: a category of artistic, musical, or literary composition characterized by a particular style, form, or content 2: kind, sort 3: painting that depicts scenes or events from everyday life usu. realisticallyhe.do.nism n [Gk hedone pleasure; akin to Gk hedys sweet--more at sweet] (1856) 1: the doctrine that pleasure or happiness is the sole or chief good in life 2: a way of life based on or suggesting the principles of hedonism -- he.do.nist n -- he.do.nis.tic adj -- he.do.nis.ti.cal.ly adv
neo.clas.sic or neo.clas.si.cal adj (1877): of, relating to, or constituting a revival or adaptation of the classical esp. in literature, music, art, or architecture -- neo.clas.si.cism n -- neo.clas.si.cist n or adj

pas.to.ral adj [ME, fr. L pastoralis, fr. pastor herdsman] (15c) 1 a (1): of, relating to, or composed of shepherds or herdsmen (2): devoted to or based on livestock raising b: of or relating to the countryside: not urban c: portraying or expressive of the life of shepherds or country people esp. in an idealized and conventionalized manner <~ poetry> d: pleasingly peaceful and innocent: idyllic 2 a: of or relating to spiritual care or guidance esp. of a congregation b: of or relating to the pastor of a church -- pas.to.ral.ly adv -- pas.to.ral.ness n ²pastoral n (1584) 1 a: a literary work (as a poem or play) dealing with shepherds or rural life in a usu. artificial manner and typically drawing a contrast between the innocence and serenity of the simple life and the misery and corruption of city and esp. court life b: pastoral poetry or drama c: a rural picture or scene d: pastorale 1b 2: crosier 1 3: a letter of a pastor to his charge: as a: a letter addressed by a bishop to his diocese b: a letter of the house of bishops of the Protestant Episcopal Church to be read in each parish
ped.er.ast n [Gk paiderastes, lit., lover of boys, fr. paid- ped- + erastes lover, fr. erasthai to love--more at eros] (ca. 1736): one that practices anal intercourse esp. with a boy -- ped.er.as.tic adj -- ped.er.as.ty n
rib.ald n [ME, fr. MF ribaut, ribauld wanton, rascal, fr. riber to be wanton, of Gmc origin; akin to OHG riban to be wanton, lit., to rub] (13c): a ribald person ²ribald adj (1508) 1: crude, offensive <~ language> 2: characterized by or using coarse indecent humor syn see coarse
ten.e.brism n, often cap [L tenebrae darkness] (1954): a style of painting esp. associated with the Italian painter Caravaggio and his followers in which most of the figures are engulfed in shadow but some are dramatically illuminated by a concentrated beam of light usu. from an identifiable source -- ten.e.brist n or adj, often cap
according to the Brittanica,
"in the history of Western painting, the use of extreme contrasts of light and dark in figurative compositions to heighten their dramatic effect. (The term is derived from the Latin tenebrae, "darkness.") In tenebrist paintings the figures are often portrayed against a background of intense darkness, but the figures themselves are illuminated by a bright, searching light that sets off their three-dimensional forms by a harsh but exquisitely controlled chiaroscuro . The technique was introduced by the Italian painter Caravaggio (1571?-1610) and was taken up in the early 17th century by painters influenced by him, including the French painter Georges de La Tour, the Dutch painters Gerrit van Honthorst and Hendrik Terbrugghen, and the Spanish painter Francisco de Zurbarán."
trompe l’oeil - (French: "deceive the eye"), in painting, the representation of an object with such verisimilitude as to deceive the viewer concerning the material reality of the object. This idea appealed to the ancient Greeks who were newly emancipated from the conventional stylizations of earlier art. Zeuxis, for example, reportedly painted such realistic grapes that birds tried to eat them. The technique was also popular with Roman muralists. Although trompe l’oeil never achieved the status of a major artistic aim, from the early Renaissance on, European painters occasionally fostered illusionism by painting false frames out of which the contents of a still life or portrait appeared to spill, or by creating window-like images suggesting actual openings in the wall or ceiling. (Brittanica)




Rubens and Rembrandt

Peter Paul RubensPeter Paul Rubens' work is original and powerful synthesis. He was always in search of new ideas. In 1598 he became a master. He was wealthy and spoke three to five different languages. He had two studios. He would first sketch a painting and then corrected it. He is known to be top in industry.
Elevation of the Cross, 1610 oil on canvas, 15' 2" x 11' 2", Cathedral, Antwerp. This is a Triptych painting that shows foreshortened anatomy. The Christ cuts diagonally across the picture creating space and prospective. This is portrait of giants trying to lift Christ. It shows a man dressed in a medieval armor suite. Christ's complexion is pinkish European and also portrays light and shadow.

  • Shows foreshortened anatomy and the contortions of violent action
  • triptych - 3 pictures
  • Christ's complexion - Dutch or French (red hair, pink flesh)
  • blending of genre painting and classicism - a lot of emotion in painting, soldier wearing medieval suit of armor, men have perfect Greek God bodies
  • Follower of Caravaggio
Rubens The Rape of the Daughters of Leucippus 1617 7'x10' Alte, Pinakothek, Munich. It portrays the demi-gods Castor and Pollux taking the two mortal women. This is a sensual theme to escape reality. The women show little resistance to the man. This is an erotic scene to be view by male gaze. Sfumato is showed in the background. Cupid is showed to be holding to a horse.

  • Castor and Pollux abducting women
  • Constructed for male gaze
  • Covering the eroticism with a mythological story
  • It is really an erotic picture, male sexual fantasy
  • Girls are the ideal northern beauties (Phoebe and Hillarea)
  • Castor and Pollux were brothers



Around 1625 Rubens did a series of paintings to commemorate the marriage and political alliance of Henry IV, king of France with Marie d' Medici a princess from Italy.  The union was to cement relations between the Catholic Church in Italy with the government of France.The paintings are an odd blending of classicism, genre, and religious imagery.

Rubens Arrival of Marie de' Medici at Marseilles1622-26
The Destiny of Marie d' Medici
Oil on canvas 155 x 115 1/4 in (394 x 293 cm)  Musee du Louvre, Paris 

Rubens Arrival of Marie de' Medici at Marseilles 1622-26
(oil study)

Rubens Arrival of Marie de' Medici at Marseilles1622-26
Oil on canvas 155 x 115 1/4 in
The Destiny of Marie d' Medici

Juno Presents the Portrait of Marie d' Medici to Henry IV
The Destiny of Marie d' Medici

Marriage By Proxy
The Destiny of Marie d' Medici



Diego Velasquez Los Borrachos 1628 Oil on canvas 5'6''x7'6'' Located in Museo del Prado, Madrid
Diego Velasquez
Diego Velasquez is a realist painter from Spain. He is known for his great skill in merging color, light, space, rhythm of line and mass in equal value. He has influenced the likes of Francisco de Goya, Camille Corot and Edouard Manet.
Los Borrachos "The Drinkers" dated c 1628. Oil on canvas, approx 5'6" x 7' 6". Museo del Prado, Madrid. The painting illustrates low life liberal men drinking wine . Dionysus, god of wine is crowning some one. The figure in the foreground whose back is to the viewer is similar to the same type of figure in Giotto's Lamentation . This painting is refered to Velasquez's education in terms of classicism and mythology. It is a mythological scene painted in the genre style.
Diego Velasquez Los Borrachos 1628 Oil on canvas 5'6''x7'6'' Located in Museo del Prado, Madrid

  • Also contains tenebrism


  • Takes up mythological theme


  • Dionysus - God of wine


  • Uses genre, typical street people


  • Velasquez was King Philip's close personal friend and advisor


  • He was the King's court painter and understood the rules, makes reference to his education and that he can paint whatever he wants to






  • Baroque Still Life


    Caravaggio, Basket of Fruit c. 1597 
    Oil on canvas, 46 x 64 cm Pinacoteca Ambrosiana, Milan
    Juan Cotan, Quince, Cabbage, Melon, and Cucumber, c. 1602
    trompe l'oeil
    Excerpted from, 
    Food for thought. by Robert Hughes. Time, 5/22/95, Vol. 145 Issue 21, following p70, 2p, 3c
    IN 17TH AND 18TH CENTURY SPANISH STILL LIFES, EVERYDAY OBJECTS ARE SET AGAINST A PERSPECTIVE OF FLEETING TIME AND DEATH 
    "Tell me what you eat," said the French gastronome Jean Anthelme Brillat-Savarin, "and I will tell you who you are." This is strikingly true of the way still life-the depiction of inanimate things, mainly food, drink and the vessels used to serve them-developed in Spain from the 16th century on. You might almost say that independent still life, painting that had no other purpose than to confront us with objects for their own sake, was a Hispanic reinvention. It was known to the ancient Greeks and Romans but then lost, and it did not come back in force until the end of the 16th century in northern Italy, Holland and Spain, all of which were under the sway of the Spanish Bourbon dynasty. 
    Still life is to eating what the nude is to sex, not a simple image but a complicated knot of cultural ideas about materialism and transcendence, illusion and reality, pleasure and denial, life and death. . .
    It begins with one extraordinary icon-an odd word for a painting of a cabbage, a quince, a cut melon and a cucumber, but no other will quite do. It is by Juan Sanchez Cotan (1560-1627), a painter from Toledo who is known by only a few works, all of which are remarkable for their careful, precise, yet unpedantic construction. This is one of the finest. No still life was ever so still. The black space behind the framing window looks infinitely deep; two of the objects (the slice of melon and the yellow tip of the cucumber) stick out a little into our space. Everything is painted with self-abnegating care, warts and all, becoming a tiny sample of the world as a marvel: not through weirdness or preciousness (as in the curio cabinets of the great) but through its ordinary, even blemished, but always singular character. 
    Cotan's work oscillates between desire and denial. Its fruit and fish and vegetables are more sacramental than gastronomic, emblems of the variety of God's creation (one of Cotan's still lifes contains a chayote from Mexico, an exotic rarity in 16th century Spain). Your eye can't wallow in such spareness, as it can in the abundance of Flemish still life. It sees the vegetable as Idea, a reading promoted by the fact that Cotan deliberately arranged the objects on strings and shelf to form a hyperbolic curve. The melon opens its delicious interior to you, but its geometric frame cancels the idea of eating it. It's food for thought. . .
    Seventeenth century Spain was notorious for the parsimony of its common diet: bread, beans, onions, a scrap of lamb or fish sometimes, and garlic, garlic, garlic. It was to French or Italian cooking what the crabby-looking servant girl grinding aioli in Diego Velazquez's Kitchen Scene with Christ in the House of Martha and Mary was to the sumptuous nudes of Titian or Veronese. A modern palate would recoil at the eggs slowly frying, or rather poaching, in oil on top of a clay stove in Velazquez's An Old Woman Cooking Eggs. But what an amazing act of skill the picture itself is, done in 1618 by a 19-year-old boy who wanted to display his total control over surface texture, form and light, from the transparency of the oil in which the eggs swim to the knife's curved shadow on a bowl to the marvelous fugue of circles and ellipses, melon and cooking vessels, that fills the lower third of the canvas. 
    The binding metaphor of 17th century still life was the vanitas, a term deriving from the text in Ecclesiastes, "Vanity of vanities, all is vanity." Such images were meant to show the fleeting nature of the world's goods, honors and sensual pleasures, setting them against the terrible perspective of death, time and judgment. They exemplified the desengauo del mundo, "disillusionment of the world," that was one of the chief tropes of Spanish Baroque art and literature. They could be small and simple-three moldy skulls and a pocket watch-or fulsome in their cascade of lessons. 



    Jan Vermeer
    Jan Vermeer, 
    Girl with a Pearl Earring c. 1665
    Oil on canvas, 46,5 x 40 cm Mauritshuis, The Hague
    Dutch, Baroque
    Context and Iconography:"Provenance: The provenance of this painting cannot be traced back very far. All earlier documents or sales catalogs cited by Blankert are pure guesswork. Vermeer seems to have painted a number of "heads," and various cited 'tronie', as they were called, cannot be further identified. We only know for certain that the work was purchased at the beginning of 1882 for the collection A. A. des Tombe of The Hague for fl. 2.30 in the sale Braam of the same city. The des Tombe collection was a public collection and bequeathed the picture in 1903 to the Mauritshuis.
    The girl is seen against a neutral, dark background, very nearly black, which establishes a powerful three-dimensionality of effect. Seen from the side, the girl is turning to gaze at us, and her lips are slightly parted, as if she were about to speak to us. It is an illusionist approach often adopted in Dutch art. She is inclining her head slightly to one side as if lost in thought, yet her gaze is keen.
     The girl is dressed in an unadorned, brownish-yellow jacket, and the shining white collar contrasts clearly against it. The blue turban represents a further contrast, while a lemon-yellow, veil-like cloth falls from its peak to her shoulders. Vermeer used plain, pure colours in this painting, limiting the range of tones. As a result, the number of sections of colour are small, and these are given depth and shadow by the use of varnish of the same colour."
    " The girl's headdress has an exotic effect. Turbans were a popular fashionable accessory in Europe as early as the 15th century, as is shown by Jan van Eyck's probable self portrait, now in the National Gallery in London. During the wars against the Turks, the remote way of life and foreign dress of the "enemy of Christendom" proved to be very fascinating. A particularly noticeable feature of Vermeer's painting is the large, tear-shaped pearl hanging from the girl's ear; part of it has a golden sheen, and it stands out from the part of the neck which is in shadow. In his Introduction to the Devout Life (1608), which was published in a Dutch translation in 1616, the mystic St Francis De Sales (1567-1622) wrote, "Both now and in the past it has been customary for women to hang pearls from their ears; as Pliny observed, they gain pleasure from the sensation of the swinging pearls touching them. But I know that God's friend, Isaac, sent earrings to chaste Rebecca as a first token of his love. This leads me to think that this jewel has a spiritual meaning, namely that the first part of the body that a man wants, and which a woman must loyally protect, is the ear; no word or sound should enter it other than the sweet sound of chaste words, which are the oriental pearls of the gospel."
     From this it is clear that the pearl in Vermeer's painting is a symbol of chastity. The oriental aspect, which is mentioned in the above extract, is further emphasized by the turban. The reference to Isaac and Rebecca suggests that this picture could have been painted on the occasion of this young woman's marriage. So to that extent it is a portrait.
     There is surely a similar explanation for the Head of a Girl dressed in a smart, grey dress (Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York). One must admire the artist's technique, which features application of the pigments in juxtaposition and melting, avoiding precise lines, and therefore blurring the contours of different colours so as to obtain effects that foreshadow those of the impressionists. The dark backgrounds that Vermeer chose in these two portraits enhance the plasticity of the models. "
    http://www.kfki.hu/~arthp/highlight.cgi?file=html/v/vermeer/03b/22pearl.html&find=pearl
    Jan Vermeer, 
    Girl with a Pearl Earring c. 1665
    Oil on canvas, 46,5 x 40 cm Mauritshuis, The Hague
    Dutch, Baroque
    Michelangelo Meresi Caravaggio 
    Boy Being Bitten by a Lizard c1600
    Form: Jan Vermeer is at first glance very much a caravaggisti. His portrait demonstrates a good mastery of the human face as well as chiaroscuro and tenebrism.   Essentially there handling of value structure is the same.However, where Caravaggio might choose dull earth toned hues (colors), on closer inspection, you can see that Vermeer uses more intense and saturatedtones.
    In Caravaggio's painting he paints the flesh tones of the young man completely in browns and pinks.  Vermeer's flesh tones are much more colorful.


    If you look closely at the core shadow of the girl's cheekbone and under her chin, you will see that Vermeer used some blue and grays in the shadows and that he also shows a bit of yellowish green on her jaw line which is the color of the light reflecting from her garment.
    The use of colors that you wouldn't expect to find in things like flesh tones are referred to as non-local color
    Vermeer looked very carefully at flesh tones, the colors of drapery, and the colors of walls and shadows and recorded in paint how color changes in response to the light that moves across it.



    figure 1
    This strip (fig 1) is of the blue cloth across the top of her head.  In figure 2,  I reduced the colors to blocks of tones to allow you to see the value shift as well as the change in the hues.  In figure 2, if you are sensitive to color you may notice that the first two of blocks look kind of greenish.  The third block looks almost like it's pure blue and that the blocks on the far right are brownish blue.  This is because color changes as it moves across an object.Usually as things are closer to a light source they are yellower of "warmer" in tone and as they move away they become cooler.

    figure 2

    figure 3
    In figure 3 all the other colors have been dropped out of the band.  It only consists of blue with no grays or any yellow are red.  Figure 3 demonstrates a lack of cool to warm relationships.  A similar relationship of warm green to cool blue green also occurs on her blouse.



    Vermeer Girl Reading  1652
    Vermeer Geographer 1669

    Jan Vermeer, Lady with Her Maidservant 
    Holding a Letter c. 1667
    Oil on canvas, 89,5 x 78,1 cm
    Frick Collection, New York
    Form:  The composition of Girl Reading, 1652, at first seems simple and symmetrical but Vermeer creates a great range of space and a visual flow through the image in which the eye moves in almost a zig zag pattern from foreground to background.  By arranging a curtain in the foreground that partially blocks the view the viewer is forced to pause.  This creates a momentary stage like trompe l’oeil effect.  In the middle ground he provides another visual pause with the table containing the fruits and the Persian carpet.  The curtain is then echoed in the curtain hanging above the window and then the diagonal of the perspectives of the window frame moves the eye back to the image of the woman. The value structure initially is very Caravaggesque but on closer examination the range of value and the subtlety of the tonal transitions is a bit more complicate. The same is true of the color in this image.  The wall behind the woman is almost a rainbow of non-local colors that move from warm to cool and light to dark.
    Virtuosic conceits such as the reflection in the glass and the lace on the drapery serve to heighten the immediacy and realism of the image.  This painting and Vermeer's style returns to some of the ideas that we explored in the Arnolfini portrait and in otherNorthern painters.
    Iconography:  The subject matter of woman writing and reading letters became a popular one in the 17th century and is taken up in later British novels by Jane Austen and the Bronte sisters and in a racier way, in the French novel  Dangerous Liaisons,and in various Rococo paintings.  Some historians have postulated that in Vermeer's paintings, depictions of women reading and writing letters is an illustration of there world.  Woman were primarily confined to the internal domestic world and they were able to reach beyond it through letters.  Whereas depictions of men by Vermeer, show them with the trappings (such as globes and maps) and therefore in roles of the adventurer whose world is outside the home.  (see the Geographer)
    These paintings are a kind of still life and portrait mix.  The use of the still life, such as the fresh fruit which were delicacies and the Persian carpet which was considered a luxury items which are considered vanitas which is a kind of memento mori.  According to the Brittanica a vanitas was,
    (Latin: "vanity"), in art, an important type of still-life painting that flourished in the Netherlands in the early 17th century, consisting of collections of objects symbolic of the inevitability of death and the transience and vanity of earthly achievements and pleasures; a vanitas painting exhorts the viewer to consider mortality and to repent. The vanitas evolved from simple pictures of skulls and other symbols of death and transience frequently painted on the reverse sides of portraits during the late Renaissance. It had acquired an independent status by about 1550, and by 1620 had become a very popular genre. Its development until its decline in about 1650 was centred in Leiden, in the United Provinces of the Netherlands, an important seat of Calvinist learning, with its emphasis on man's sinfulness and its rigid moral code.
    Context: Many historians believe that Vermeer himself lead a very insulated and domestic life and that many of his paintings reuse the same props and the same room.  This would account for his consistent use of the window on the left in many pictures and the reoccurrence of the same garments, chairs, carpets and still life objects and this is why we have so many other kind of paintings, such as the landscape below.

    Jan Vermeer,  View of Delft 1659-60 
    Oil on canvas, 98,5 x 117,5 cm Mauritshuis, The Hague
    More views of this image
     "Topographic views of cities had become a tradition by the time Vermeer painted his famous canvas. Hendrik Vroom was the author of two such works depicting Delft, but they are more archaic because they followed the traditional panoramic approach that we remember from the two cityscapes by Hercules Seghers at the Berlin museum. The latter artist was one of the first to make use of the inverted Galilean telescope to transcribe the preliminary prints and their proportions (more than twice as high as wide) into the more conventional format of his paintings. Vermeer executed his View of Delft on the spot, but the optical instrument pointed toward the city and providing the artist with the aspect translated onto canvas, which we admire for its conciseness and special structure, was not the camera obscura but the inverted telescope. It is only the latter that condenses the panoramic view of a given sector, diminishes the figures of the foreground to a smaller than normal magnification, emphasizes the foreground as we see it in the picture, and by the same token makes the remainder of the composition recede into space. The image thus obtained provides us with optical effects that, without being unique in Dutch seventeenth-century painting, as often claimed, convey a cityscape that is united in the composition and enveloped atmospherically into glowing light.
     We admire the town, but it is not a profile view of a township, but a painting, an idealized representation of Delft, with its main characteristics simplified and then cast into the framework of a harbour mirroring selected reflections in the water, and a rich, full sky with magnificent cloud formations looming over it. This is chronologically the last painting by Vermeer that was executed in rich, full pigmentation, with colour accents put in with a fully loaded brush. The artist outdid himself in a rendition of his hometown, which stands as a truly great interpretation of nature."
    Quoted from
    http://www.kfki.hu/~arthp/html/v/vermeer/02c/13view.html

      

    Camera Obscura

    It was believed that Vermeer used the device of the camera obscura.  There are several theories concerning his use of the device.  The first is that he used the device as means to just look at a flattened two dimensional image.  According to the Brittanica, the camera obscura,
    is the ancestor of the photographic camera. The Latin name means "dark chamber," and the earliest versions, dating to antiquity, consisted of small darkened rooms with light admitted through a single tiny hole. The result was that an inverted image of the outside scene was cast on the opposite wall, which was usually whitened. For centuries the technique was used for viewing eclipses of the Sun without endangering the eyes and, by the 16th century, as an aid to drawing; the subject was posed outside and the image reflected on a piece of drawing paper for the artist to trace. Portable versions were built, followed by smaller and even pocket models; the interior of the box was painted black and the image reflected by an angled mirror so that it could be viewed right side up. The introduction of a light-sensitive plate by J.-N. Niepce created photography.
    And according to the Cape Argus "CAMERA OBSCURA MARRIES MAGIC AND SCIENCE" February 15, 2001

    Knowledge of the phenomenon has been around for well over 2 000 years.In essence, a camera obscura uses the property of light by which, if a room or container is darkened and a small hole is made in one wall or side, an image from the outside will be projected on to the opposite inside surface, but upside down and inverted.
    This ability of a small hole, or pinhole, to form an image was apparently known to Chinese scholars as early as the 4th century BC.
    The famous Greek philosopher Aristotle also knew about the phenomenon and used it to observe solar eclipses.
    Famous Renaissance artist and scholar Leonardo da Vinci wrote about it and produced a detailed account of the formation of images by the use of a small hole.
    Later, this concept was modified by the use of lenses, so that a 360BA view could be obtained - by using a lens mounted above the camera and able to swivel in a complete circle - and into portable forms which eventually became pinhole cameras.
    These instruments were often used by artists to aid perspective drawing, as the images are easily traced.
    Modern photography was born when the small reflex box obscura was combined with Daguerre's invention in 1839.
    Daguerre perfected the discovery of the effect of sunlight on silver nitrate to form photographic film and paper.
    Copyright 2001 The Chronicle Publishing Co.
    The San Francisco Chronicle
    JULY 8, 2001, SUNDAY, FINAL EDITION
    SECTION: SUNDAY REVIEW; Pg. 65
    LENGTH: 386 words
    HEADLINE: How Vermeer may have used a camera obscura
    BYLINE: Reviewed by Kenneth Baker
    BODY:Vermeer's Camera,Uncovering the Truth Behind the Masterpieces
    By Philip Steadman
    OXFORD; 207 PAGES; $25
    --------------------------------------------------
    Did the rise of photography prepare the way for Johannes Vermeer's rediscovery after two centuries of neglect?
    More than that, Philip Steadman argues in his new book, "Vermeer's Camera," Vermeer (1632-1675) may have paved the way for photography itself by his use of a camera obscura.
    Most art historians now believe that Vermeer used this optical convenience, but no one has taken more trouble to prove it than Steadman, a professor of urban studies at University College London. The principle of the camera obscura -- Latin for "dark chamber" -- had been known to European scholars since the early Renaissance. As to how Vermeer might have learned of it, Steadman must speculate.
    Open a small hole in the wall of a dark room and an inverted image of the scene outside, given enough light, will appear on the opposite interior wall. Lenses and mirrors can right and focus a projected image. The same principles work in a portable "box camera," as in the cameras that launched photography.
    Steadman's argument rests on the assumption that Vermeer made a number of his most famous paintings in the same room.
    Working backward from the pictures' internal perspective, Steadman infers the dimensions of the room itself, including the position of a back wall that we, the painting's viewers, necessarily never see.
    On that back wall, Steadman believes, Vermeer projected his camera obscura images of the room. He imagines Vermeer's camera as a curtained cubicle in which the painter could sit alone.
    When Steadman calculated the sizes of those hypothetical projections, based on his reckoning of the paintings' viewpoints -- that is, the position of the camera obscura's lens -- they approximate those of Vermeer's canvases to a startling degree.
    Steadman's account of his research can be hard to follow at points, but his argument seems decisive.
    The camera obscura hypothesis, Steadman concludes, suits not only the look of Vermeer's mature paintings but also his situation as a man seeking peace in a financially pressed household of 11 children.
    E-mail Chronicle Art Critic Kenneth Baker at kennethbaker@sfchronicle.com.
    Jan Vermeer. The Lacemaker 1669-70
    Oil on canvas transferred to panel, 2
    3.9 x 20.5 cm 
    Musée du Louvre, Paris
    Dutch, BaroqueForm:  This portrait is a very straightforward and naturalistic representation.  The composition is simple and there is no great range of space.  The value structure initially is very Caravaggesque but on closer examination the range of value and the subtlety of the tonal transitions is a bit more complicate. The same is true of the color in this image.  Vermeer does use some intense or saturated hues as well as a few non-local colors in the face and hands.
    This image is one of those images that tends to support Vermeer's use of the camera obscura.  If you look closely at the detail below of the red lace you will find that Vermeer's lace becomes blobs of color rather than the red lines we would anticipate a painter rendering for individual strands.  If you look closely at the details of any photograph you will find that details become blurry in this same fashion.
    Another facet of this detail also supports this conclusion.  If you look closely at the details of the strands you will also see that there are little disks or rings of color that seem to have no purpose for being there.  These disks are actually what one would see if you looked through a cheap or poorly made lens on a camera.  They are caused by some imperfections in the lens condensing or refracting light in an odd fashion.
    Iconography:  Almost all of Vermeer's paintings are allegorical in some way.  As this the young woman makes lace her hands are propped up on a prayer book.  This juxtaposition of prayer book to her embroidery seems to pay homage to the cliché that "idle hands are the work of the devil."  This may be the case because there are many accounts of Dutch housewives obsessive creation of lace ornamentation,  however, this was not just to keep their hands busy.  Lacemaking was also a good source of extra income for many housewives.  If you look at almost any image from Rembrandt to Vermeer you will see that the clothing usually included an ornate lace collar and sometimes sleeves and other ornaments.  So lace is also a sign of wealth when it was worn. 

      




    Color TemperatureThe terms "warm" and "cool" are used to express those hues that connote these respective qualities. In general, reds, oranges, and yellows "feel" warm, while blues, greens, and purples "feel" cool. Distinctions between warm and cool colors can be very appear either warmer or cooler depending upon the slight influence of red or blue. The same applies to gray and black (fig.12).

    fig.12
    color wheel
    The wheel of color are helpful tool that show the basic organization and interrelationships of colors. It is also used as a tool for color selection. This color wheel provides basic color terminology that anyone working with type and color should be completely familiar with. Many color wheel models exist, and some are quite complex. Below are color wheel that contains 12 basic colors (fig.6). It is conceivable for a wheel to consist of an infinite number of variations, too subtle for the human eye to discern. Contained within the circle of color is a circle of black, which is obtained by mixing together all of the surrounding colors. Though this color wheel consist of only 12 colors, it is the root of all colors, a pure statement of chromatic harmony, and a fountain of imagination and emotion are important.

    fig.6
    HueHue is simply another name for color. The pure hues are identified by familiar names such as red, violet, green, purple, yellow. In the world of commercial products and pigments, hues have been given thousands of names. Woodland Green, Sienna, Apache Red etc. may evoke romantic and exotic thoughts, but these names, aside from their marketing value, have little to do with the composition of the colors they represent. In reality, few legitimate names exist for hues. The basic 12 color-wheel pictured on the opposite page features the primary hues red, yellow and blue; the secondary hues orange, green, and violet; and the six tertiary hues red-orange, orange-yellow, yellow-green, blue-green, blue-violet, and red-violet (fig.9). Primaries are considered absolute colors and cannot be created by mixing other colors together. However, mixing together the primaries color into various combinations creates an infinite number of colors.

    fig.9




    me.men.to mo.ri n, pl memento mori [L, remember that you must die] (1596): a reminder of mortality; esp: death's-head
    me.men.to n, pl -tos or -toes [ME, fr. L, remember, imper. of meminisse to remember; akin to L ment-, mens mind--more at mind] (1580): something that serves to warn or remind; also: souvenir
    non-local colorThe use of colors that you wouldn't expect to find in things like fleshtones are referred to as non-local color.
    prov.e.nance n [F, fr. provenir to come forth, originate, fr. L provenire, fr. pro- forth + venire to come--more at pro-, come] (1785) 1: origin, source 2: the history of ownership of a valued object or work of art or literature
    Saturation
    It also called chroma or intensity, saturation refers to the brightness of a hue. The highest saturation occurs in colors that are pure and unmixed. Any color mixture will diminish intensity. However, adding white, gray, black, or a complementary color most radically compromises intensity (fig.10). Variations of a single hue dulled in intensity by different amounts of an added complement are often referred to as tones. When complementary colors are placed in close proximity, the intensity of each is increased. This vibrant condition is referred to as simultaneous contrast (fig.11).


    fig.10

    fig.11
    trompe l’oeil - (French: "deceive the eye"), in painting, the representation of an object with such verisimilitude as to deceive the viewer concerning the material reality of the object. This idea appealed to the ancient Greeks who were newly emancipated from the conventional stylizations of earlier art. Zeuxis, for example, reportedly painted such realistic grapes that birds tried to eat them. The technique was also popular with Roman muralists. Although trompe l’oeil never achieved the status of a major artistic aim, from the early Renaissance on, European painters occasionally fostered illusionism by painting false frames out of which the contents of a still life or portrait appeared to spill, or by creating window-like images suggesting actual openings in the wall or ceiling. (Brittanica)
    Value Structure
    Is the lightness or darkness of a color or shade.  Chiaroscuro and tenebrism both employ the use quick shifts of light and dark.
    Value refers to the lightness or darkness of a color. It is a variable that can substantially alter a color's appearance, and as we will see later, it is also an important factor in achieving legibility with type and color. A hue changes in value when either white or black are added to it. A color with added white is called a tint (fig.7) ; a color with added black is called a shade (fig.8). Generally speaking, pure hues that are normally light in value (yellow, orange, green) make the best tints, white pure hues that are normally dark in value (red, blue, violet) make the most desirable shades. The palettes colors below shoes a spectrum of tints and shades based on the hues from the colors clearly shows that changes in value greatly expand color possibilities.



    fig.7


    fig.8
    vanitas (Latin: "vanity"), in art, an important type of still-life painting that flourished in the Netherlands in the early 17th century, consisting of collections of objects symbolic of the inevitability of death and the transience and vanity of earthly achievements and pleasures; a vanitas painting exhorts the viewer to consider mortality and to repent. The vanitas evolved from simple pictures of skulls and other symbols of death and transience frequently painted on the reverse sides of portraits during the late Renaissance. It had acquired an independent status by about 1550, and by 1620 had become a very popular genre. Its development until its decline in about 1650 was centred in Leiden, in the United Provinces of the Netherlands, an important seat of Calvinist learning, with its emphasis on man's sinfulness and its rigid moral code. (Brittanica Encyclopedia)




    Chardin, Greuze, and Hogarth:  Genre Scenes and Moralizing Art in the 1700's 


    Jean-Baptiste Siméon Chardin
    Self Portrait at the Easel, 1771, 
    pastel on blue paper over canvas stretcher, 
    Musée du Louvre, Paris
    Jean- Baptiste Simeon Chardin- 
    Grace at Table
    (also called Le Bénédicité "Benediction")
    1740 o/c

    Jean-Baptiste Siméon Chardin. 
    Soap Bubbles, c1733
    oil on canvas, 36 5/8 x 29 3/8 in.
    French Rococo
    .
    Context according to the Brittanica,
    Chardin, Jean-Baptiste-Siméon 
    b. Nov. 2, 1699, Paris, Fr. d. Dec. 6, 1779, Paris 
    French painter of still lifes and domestic scenes remarkable for their intimate realism and tranquil atmosphere and the luminous quality of their paint. For his still lifes he chose humble objects ("Le Buffet," 1728), and for his genre paintings modest events ("Dame cachetant une lettre" [1733; "Lady Sealing a Letter"]). He also executed some fine portraits, especially the pastels of his last years. He was nominated to the Royal Academy of Painting in 1728.Born in Paris, Chardin never really left his native quarter of Saint-Germain-des-Prés. Little is known about his training, although he worked for a time with the artists Pierre-Jacques Cazes and Noël-Nicolas Coypel. In 1724 he was admitted to the Academy of Saint Luc. His true career, however, did not begin until 1728 when, thanks to the portrait painter Nicolas de Largillière (1656-1746), he became a member of the Royal Academy of Painting, to which he offered "La Raie" ("The Skate") and "Le Buffet," both now at the Louvre Museum.
    Although not yet established, he was beginning to gain a reputation. In 1731 he married Marguerite Saintard, and two years later the first of his figure paintings appeared, "Dame cachetant une lettre." From then on Chardin alternated between paintings of la vie silencieuse ("the silent life") or scenes of family life such as "Le Bénédicité" ("The Grace") and half-figure paintings of young men and women concentrating on their work or play, such as "Le Jeune dessinateur" ("Young Man Drawing") and "L'Enfant au toton" ("Child with Top," Louvre) (and Soap Bubbles, c1733). The artist repeated his subject matter, and there are often several original versions of the same composition. Chardin's wife died in 1735, and the estate inventory drawn up after her death reveals a certain affluence, suggesting that by this time Chardin had become a successful painter.
    In 1740 he was presented to Louis XV, to whom he offered "La Mère laborieuse" ("Mother Working") and "Le Bénédicité." Four years later, he married Marguerite Pouget, whom he was to immortalize 30 years later in a pastel. These were the years when Chardin was at the height of his fame. Louis XV, for example, paid 1,500 livres for "La Serinette" ("The Bird-Organ"). Chardin continued to rise steadily on the rungs of the traditional academic career. His colleagues at the academy entrusted him, first unofficially (1755), then officially (1761), with the hanging of the paintings in the Salon (official exhibition of the academy), which had been held regularly every two years since 1737 and in which Chardin had participated faithfully. It was in the exercise of his official duties that he met the encyclopaedist and philosopher Denis Diderot, who would devote some of his finest pages of art criticism to Chardin, the "grand magicien" that he admired so much.
    An anecdote illustrating Chardin's genius and his unique position in 18th-century painting is told by one of his greatest friends, the engraver Charles-Nicolas Cochin, who wrote a letter shortly after Chardin's death to Haillet de Couronne, the man who was to deliver Chardin's eulogy to the Academy of Rouen, of which Chardin had been a member.

    One day, an artist was making a big show of the method he used to purify and perfect his colors. Monsieur Chardin, impatient with so much idle chatter, said to the artist, "But who told you that one paints with colors?" "With what then?" the astonished artist asked. "One uses colors," replied Chardin, "but one paints with feeling."

    He was nearer to the feeling of meditative quiet that animates the rustic scenes of the 17th-century French master Louis Le Nain than to the spirit of light and superficial brilliance seen in the work of many of his contemporaries. His carefully constructed still lifes do not bulge with appetizing foods but are concerned with the objects themselves and with the treatment of light. In his genre scenes he does not seek his models among the peasantry as his predecessors did; he paints the petty bourgeoisie of Paris. But manners have been softened, and his models seem to be far removed from Le Nain's austere peasants. The housewives of Chardin are simply but neatly dressed and the same cleanliness is visible in the houses where they live. Everywhere a sort of intimacy and good fellowship constitute the charm of these modestly scaled pictures of domestic life that are akin in feeling and format to the works of Jan Vermeer.
    Despite the triumphs of his early and middle life, Chardin's last years were clouded, both in his private life and in his career. His only son, Pierre-Jean, who had received the Grand Prix (prize to study art in Rome) of the academy in 1754, committed suicide in Venice in 1767. And then too, the public's taste had changed. The new director of the academy, the all-powerful Jean-Baptiste-Marie Pierre, in his desire to restore historical painting to the first rank, humiliated the old artist by reducing his pension and gradually divesting him of his duties at the academy. Furthermore, Chardin's sight was failing. He tried his hand at drawing with pastels. It was a new medium for him and less taxing on his eyes. Those pastels, most of which are in the Louvre Museum, are highly thought of in the 20th century, but that was not the case in Chardin's own time. In fact, he lived out the remainder of his life in almost total obscurity, his work meeting with indifference.
    It was not until the middle of the 19th century that he was rediscovered by a handful of French critics, including the brothers Edmond and Jules de Goncourt, and collectors (the Lavalard brothers, for example, who donated their collection of Chardins to the Museum of Picardy in Amiens). Especially noteworthy is the LaCaze Collection donated to the Louvre in 1869. Today Chardin is considered the greatest still-life painter of the 18th century, and his canvases are coveted by the world's most distinguished museums and collections.
    (P.M.R.)
     "Chardin, Jean-Baptiste-Siméon."   Britannica 2001 Standard Edition CD-ROM.   Copyright © 1994-2001 Britannica.com Inc.   December 28, 2002. 

      



    Jean- Baptiste Simeon Chardin- 
    Grace at Table (also called Benediction)
    1740 o/c
    Robert Campin (the Master of Flemalle) 
    Merode Altarpiece c. 1425
    Form: Chardin's paintings differ from those of his Rococo contemporaries in many ways.  Chardin's use of color is closer to the Renaissance painters than the Rococo.  In these paintings he uses a low key earth toned palette.  His compositions, like this one, often deal with interior scenes that are dimly lit.  Still life elements are painted with the same consideration as the figures and his brushwork is more specific than the Rococo painters of his time.Iconography:  This is a genre scene in the most Renaissance and traditional sense and returns in some ways to earlier genre scenes such as in Robert Campin's Merode Altarpiece c. 1425.  The iconography is anti-Rococo because the scene deals not with a romantic encounter but with the moral instruction of two young women.  The subject matter is a middle class orbourgeoisie family in which either a mother or a governess serve a simple meal.  The children, knowing their place in in the world show they are grateful to God by saying grace before the meal.  Surrounding them are the trappings of a moral bourgeoisexistence.  The furniture, toys and clothing are simple but still of good quality.

    Context: Chardin's output of quiet domestic scenes in Dutch manner, usually on a small scale but really wasn't ever in great favor with the aristocracy but at times he did enjoy some popularity with the aristocracy because some of the ideas fell into place with Rousseau's ideas of morality and social order in texts such as his Social Contract and Émile.
    Émile in particular has bearing on this painting because it is a novel about the education of a little girl named Sophie.  Rousseau believed that people were born fundamentally good and if allowed to pursue the natural inclinations this goodness would manifest itself. 
    Émile, was a rejection of the traditional ideal: education was not seen to be the imparting of all things to be known to the uncouth child; rather it was seen as the “drawing out” of what is already there, the fostering of what is native. Rousseau's educational proposal is highly artificial, the process is carefully timed and controlled, but with the end of allowing the free development of human potential.
    http://www.factmonster.com/ce6/people/A0860819.html


    Jean-Baptiste Siméon Chardin. 
    Soap Bubbles, c1733
    oil on canvas, 36 5/8 x 29 3/8 in.
    French Baroque but not really Rococo


    Jan Vermeer. The Lacemaker 1669-70
    Oil on canvas transferred to panel, 
    23.9 x 20.5 cm Musée du Louvre, Paris
    Dutch, Baroque
    Form: This painting uses a low key earth toned palette.  The composition of this image is shallow and somewhat symmetrical although not completely.  The design forces the viewer to focus on the image of the young boy who is highlighted in a tennebristic manner.  Still life elements are painted with the same consideration as the figures and his brushwork is more specific than the Rococo painters of his time.Iconography:  It is possible that this may be an overinterpretation of the iconography of this image however most historians believe that this is a type of vanitas or memento mori: "The boy enjoys a pleasurable pursuit as time wastes away, and the soap bubble itself is a traditional symbol of the fragile, fleeting nature of human life." http://www.uic.edu/~pbhales/
    ah111/wk6hand.html 
    According to the National Gallery: 
    "A boy concentrates his full attention on a quivering bubble, which seems ready to slip from his pipe. Eighteenth-century French viewers would have recognized the soap bubble from Dutch and Flemish painting as a symbol of life's fragility and the vanity of worldly pursuits." http://www.nga.gov/collection/
    gallery/gg53/gg53-997.0.html
    Context:  Interestingly enough, although most historians ascribe this new moralizing in Chardin's images to Rousseau's philosophies but similar the ideas are also evidenced in works such as Vermeer's The Lacemaker 1669-70.  Compare and contrast these two paintings and come up with some conclusions as to how each image is meant to convey a similar message.  Look at them both in terms of a  formal, iconographic and contextual framework.  How and why are they similar and or different.




    Jean-Baptiste Greuze, 1725-1805 Broken Eggs 1756
    French , New York: Metropolitan Museum
    French Romantic/Rococo
    Form: Although painted during the Rococo period this painting is not very Rococo in its form.  This style of painting probably evolved somewhat from commedia and or some other types of performances because the composition of the picture plane is very shallow and stage like.  This oil painting uses a low key earth toned palette.Iconography: Stokstad discusses the idea that Greuze's paintings are expressions of the new moralizing philosophies expressed by French philosophers such as Diderot, Voltaire and Rousseau.
    Here is a young woman who has a basket of eggs that has been broken.  The egg is a symbol of life and also of a woman's womb and or virginity.  In this case the metaphor is that she has lost her virtue.
    The young woman's grandmother or mother stands behind her pointing the accusing finger while her brother looks on in a state of bewilderment.  The young boy is a rather Rousseau's interpretation of a young child's reactions.  Children will always try to do the right thing and here, the girl's younger brother vainly attempts to put the eggs back together and restore her to her former state.
    Context:  This image relates very clearly to the plot of various novels and poems of the period such as Moll Flanders in which when a woman loses here virtue she has started down the wrong path and it will lead to her demise.  The same ideas are expressed in the prints of William Hogarth in particular his prints entitledBefore and After c1736.


    bour.geois adj [MF, fr. OF borjois, fr. borc] (ca. 1565) 1: of, relating to, or characteristic of the townsman or of the social middle class 2: marked by a concern for material interests and respectability and a tendency toward mediocrity 3: dominated by commercial and industrial interests: capitalistic -- bour.geois.ifi.ca.tion n -- 
    bour.geois.ify vb ²bourgeois n, pl bourgeois (ca. 1674) 1 a: burgher b: a middle-class person 2: a person with social behavior and political views held to be influenced by private-property interest: capitalist 3 pl: bourgeoisie
    bour.geoi.sie n [F, fr. bourgeois] (1707) 1: middle class 2: a social order dominated by bourgeois
    genre n [F, fr. MF, kind, gender--more at gender] (1770) 1: a category of artistic, musical, or literary composition characterized by a particular style, form, or content 2: kind, sort 3:painting that depicts scenes or events from everyday life usually realistically
    petite bourgeoisie n [F, lit., small bourgeoisie] (1916): the lower middle class including esp. small shopkeepers and artisans



    Hogarth Moralizing English Art in the 1700's
    Form:  Hogarth was more of a printmaker than a painter.  He used extensively the process of intaglio and engraving processes discussed in your book.  This is important because his work is rather cartoon like and seems to anticipate what  modern comic strips and political cartoons will become in the 19th through 21st centuries.  Hogarth's work is realistic but it is still stylized in a cartoon like manner.  His portraits of everyday people are more caricatures than attempts to capture a realistic or photographic realism.
    Context:  William Hogarth is a lot like your mother, he wants you to feel guilty all the time. Hogarth started out as a painter who commented on what he perceived as the decay of English society and the realized that he could make more money by selling his images in the form of prints.  The creation of prints of Hogarth's images was a revolution for him.  Instead of creating one painting that could be sold only once and had to be sold for a large sum of money, he was actually able to make more money by creating prints and selling them for much cheaper prices.  He was even able to pre-sell his images by creating subscriptions for the images.  Therefore he was also able to reach a much wider audience and this, combined with his cartoonish and satirical images, made his works wildly successful.  According to the Brittanica,
    The engravings were aimed at a wide public, and their tremendous success immediately established Hogarth's financial and artistic independence. He was henceforth free, unlike most of his colleagues, to follow his own creative inclinations. To safeguard his livelihood from unscrupulously pirated editions, he fought to obtain legislation protecting artist's copyright and held back the eight-part Rake's Progress until a law of that nature, known as the Hogarth Act, was passed in 1735.
    Hogarth establishes the Copyright Law system in which it could protect an artist intellectual property. It would protect the artist's books, art, or other own ideas. He aided in the proposal to protect his prints with the Copyright Act, due to many unauthorized copies made of his paintings. It was passed by the British Parliament in 1735.
    Much of Hogarth's work is influenced by literature, popular culture, and current events.  A lot of his imagery has evolved from the novels of the day, theatre, commedia as well as opera.  He was actually very close friends with a famous actor named David Garrick.
    An killer site all about Hogarth with timelines, biographies and all the images you could ever want: http://www.geocities.com/Paris/Gallery/3737/ 
      


    Beer Street and Gin Lane-(diptych) two images
    In early 1730's there was an epidemic of alcoholic consumption. Gin was mass produced and started to replace beer as the main alcoholic drink of choice. The portrait shows everybody selling their goods in order to get more gin. It shows also that the KillMan Distiller, the undertaker, and the Pawnshop are doing very good in their business.Early 1700's an epidemic. People had to drink distilled spirits because the water was contaminated. A watery thin or "near beer" was the primary beverage. When gin was introduced Hogarth saw this as a corrupting drug. Gin is equivalent to Hogarth as heroine or crack is to ours.
     

      
      

    William Hogarth 
    Before and After c1736









    Jean-Honoré Fragonard, 1732-1806 
    The Meeting, from Love of the Shepherds
    1771-73 o/c 10'x7' New York, Frick Museum